I will scatter them, and then I will gather them: Deuteronomy 4:27; 28:64; 32:26; Isaiah 11:12;

Jeremiah 23:8 / Read about the African Slave Trade in Deuteronomy 28th Chapter.


N E W S L E T T E R…….#22









"Take direct action against the U.S. government!" Dr. Robert Brock


Note from the REPNOW Newsletter Editor:

In view of all these horrifying experiences, President Bush and members of his Administration continue to encourage people to get back to normal and get out and spend money to save the economy in the process. You know he was talking to White Folks! Americans are also told to not be afraid to fly and in the same breath, are also told that if any commercial jet is suspected of being hijacked and is thought to be flying into a building, it will be blown to bits by "friendly fire." And if that’s not enough feces to hit the fan, consider the repercussions of a major bio/chemical outbreak in this country when there aren’t even enough antibiotics to satisfy a quarter of the population. (Y’all ain’t stupid, and you know who all will get whatever remedies exist.) And if that ain’t enough, if the smallpox germ is released in this country, and all people are not inoculated, this plague will be worse than any other to hit this planet. Isn’t it just amazing that all of these incidents and concerns have taken place in less than two months time. Unreal!

I must also point out that we haven’t seen so much patriotism since I don’t know when. Folks are calling up the radio stations and TV networks telling people to display their flags on their houses, cars, buildings, and on their person. I guess this displaying of the American flag is some kind of panacea of which Blacks aren’t aware because it certainly did nothing for those brought to this land in shackles. I fail to see how a red, white, and blue American flag that is a symbol of corruption, murder, and greed from the blood, sweat, tears, and free labor of Slaves can bring an end to the agony the US now endures. I even fail to see how this flag can obliterate the evils, immorality, and oppressive nature for which this country stands. And unfortunately, those who have not been wearing this flag or exhibiting it on their TV networks are under serious attack.

We even hear much about "America the Beautiful" and "Let Freedom Ring" and every other patriotic phrase and song geared towards bringing Black and White America TOGETHER and UNITING to fight Islam. No, scratch that, the report is that America is not proclaiming a war on Islam, but rather a war on the Taliban who just happen to be Muslim and believers in Islam. I have to keep telling myself that the United States can distinguish the difference. The United States forgets that it has a very poor track record for manipulating poor countries and imposing sanctions for the benefit of American policies. Unbeknownst to the White societies that worked their Slaves to death, Arabs and Muslims know all too well how Descendants of Slaves are treated, and that the US does not mean what it says about liking the people of Afghanistan. They know the history of this country, and they remember what the US promised and failed to deliver for them when the Taliban were fighting the Russians.

Another issue that has spurred World concern and opinion is the President’s policy of the United States first desire to becoming an isolationist nation to now becoming a coalition with literally every nation on this Earth in just a matter of hours after the September 11th attacks. Now, the US wants every nation under the sun to help them fight "terrorism" ALL OVER THE WORLD, and if these nations are not with them then it’s understood that they are against them. These are strong words for a country that wanted to go it alone.

All these ominous threats coming on the heels of walking out of the World Conference Against Racism and letting the suffering Peoples and nations of this World know that the US could care less about the atrocities committed against them, but they better well care about atrocities committed against the United States. Can you believe it? And if you have been glued to the television and the newspapers, you can see just how most people of other countries do not want to be dragged into this "New War" along side the United States. Some brave souls in several countries are coming right out and telling the US that they brought this crisis upon themselves by financially and militarily supporting Israelis who are bombing and bull-dozing the Palestinians homes and farms for the construction of more and more Jewish settlements. That being a given, whether all Muslims join with the US or not, you can believe that they are in sympathy with their Palestinian brothers, especially in light of what the racist Israelis are doing to these Palestinians. And don’t you just know that there are probably more practicing Muslims in this World than Christians to get this message across loud and clear.

Now, that I have given you my spiel on the events now taking place, I ask, where does that leave Descendants of Slaves in "America the Beautiful" in regard to our thrust for Reparations? Remember, President Bush ordered US representation to walk out of WCAR because he didn’t want anything to do with the terrorism that the Slaves endured, Reparations for this heinous, cruel, and barbaric atrocity, or the RACISM Blacks face in America today. Oh yes, the President didn’t want the Conference to discuss the Israeli’s "RACIST" and terrorist attacks against the Palestinians, either. However, since the September 11th tragedy, are we supposed to focus on this new sense of patriotism and wait until all this blows over and then rekindle our thrust for Reparations? Can we really afford to postpone our fight for Reparations for the TransAtlantic Slave Trade and postpone our fight to end RACISM, discrimination, prejudice, and racial profiling, police brutality, false police charges, unfair imprisonment, and other injustices. Are we really supposed to wait until this great White Nation of powers-that-be gives the signal for business as usual before we resume where we left off?

Since the September 11th tragedy the thrust for Reparations seems to have slowed a bit. Yes, of course we are all saddened at the great loss of lives and shocked at the magnitude of what has happened. And yes, we are even nervous about the potential for other disasters, but don’t we also realize that we cannot afford to permit this "New War" for the attacks against the WTC and the Pentagon cause our fight for Reparations to be sidetracked. We have needs and this is our war for justice served for ourselves and for our little Black children who have suffered thousands of attacks of degradation, impoverishment, illiteracy, and humiliation. We cannot allow our needs to go unsettled. We have suffered long enough!

The worst terrorist act of all times was against a CONTINENT and this aggression destroyed many, many millions of Black Peoples and left their descendants without resources, a land, a country, a culture, a name, without a pot to p--- in, and without self determination and dignity. And worse, these descendants who were forced into captivity in strange lands and ethnically cleansed to the bone still do not have their freedom. If you think we do, then where is the Slave’s Declaration of Independence? Where did the evil Slave Masters write in their constitution that Descendants of Slaves are free to leave the lands that enslaved them? Where is the justice served for the enslavement of Blacks out of Africa? Where is retribution for the death and pain and suffering Black Slaves endured for centuries? President Bush echoes "the right thing to do" for whatever his Administration advises. Where is the "right thing to do" for Descendants of Slaves whose forebears worked from sunup until sundown and often until midnight without pay and without decent food, clothing, and shelter while their wives and children were sold right before their eyes, and they were helpless to do a thing about it? Where is the "right thing to do" for Blacks when the US donates billions upon billions of our tax dollars to Israelis and other countries while the ghettoes and rural South waste away causing the demise of our Black youth and inhibiting their prosperity and intellectual and mental growth? Where is the "right thing to do" while the educated and talented Blacks watch the White privileged excel above and beyond whether they are qualified or with degrees or not? Where is JUSTICE SERVED for all the degradation and human suffering the Black Man has experienced for well over 400 years in these United States?

Not under any circumstances can we permit the United States government to slam the door in our faces when we are diplomatically appealing to this government and the United Nations to show Descendants of Slaves some compassion and to justly and honorably resolve, once and for all, this ever lingering issue of the Slave Trade, Reparations, and racism. We cannot let the powers-that-be think for one moment that we are succumbing to their rejections.

We must continue to write to our Congressional Representatives and let them know that we are not giving up. And also write to those who have voiced support for Reparations and let them know that we are behind their every effort for this cause so that this DEBT can be paid in order for justice to be served.

If the United States can drop bombs on Afghanistan and in the process throw food at those they bomb costing tax payers billions of dollars, then the US can most certainly give Descendants of Slaves their FREEDOM and Reparations for forced migration, enslavement, and ethnic cleansing. Justice is enabling Descendants of Slaves to employ self determination and pursue happiness in America or in a friendly country of our choosing.

The President recently stated that the people of America must "reassess what’s important in life." Well, first we have to get a life - and one that we have determined. As long as we live in a White dominating society that teaches Blacks the Great White Way, the longer Whites will appear to be Superior in all matters and will brainwash our youth. Then obviously we, as a People, will never have anything resembling a "life" to reassess if we don’t rise above the indignities, exploitation, and control placed upon us by this privileged, White dominant society. We have waited long enough for a genuine and moral settlement, and we cannot be manipulated into waiting any longer.

If Blacks out of Africa are not compensated for the great harm we have endured, we will never gain any respect from being "Descendants of Slaves." The descendants of those who took us captive will maintain this merciless control that they have over us and will continue to anticipate the slow demise of Blacks to impoverishment, drugs, gangs, and imprisonment. And we cannot let this happen!!! If we are to make for ourselves a better name than "Descendants of Slaves" and a better "life" for Black Peoples, then we must acquire these Reparations and make it happen - on our terms.

Many thanks to those who are remaining strong and diligent in this "OUR" struggle and on the case to end our oppression and impoverishment. May the Most High GOD continue to be with us in our endeavors for justice served.

Tziona Yisrael, Editor



(Click on "Repnow")




After an 18-hour flight of over 11,000 miles from Durban to Johannesburg to Cape Verde to New York to Los Angeles, I am back. I am bleary-eyed and probably spastic, but much wiser and informed from the tremendous experiences of the World Conference Against Racism and its sister conference, the NGO Forum.

By the way, when you decide to go to South Africa, I highly recommend that you take South African Airlines. Their service to passengers was nearly impeccable (though our luggage got temporary left in Johannesburg), and you get a chance to see first-hand a microcosm of that country's on-going experiment in diversity. I wasn't alone in that assessment. The plane was full of African Americans returning to the States.

The Middle East crisis will not be solved by the World Conference Against Racism, nor should anyone have expected it to. However, language was found and agreed upon that was at least mutually tolerable concerning two hot-button issues: the Zionism/Palestinian confrontation, and on the slavery as a crime against humanity issue.

The Dalits, the dark-skinned people of India, the Roma (gypsies) of Europe, and many other issues got an airing.

The continuingly negative news reports to the contrary were simply mistaken. (There were over 1,000 journalists/media people at both conferences, and they had to have something to write home about everyday. Negative news is always easier news.)

The WCAR, slow and plodding as it was, got on with its business, and cannot be adjudged a failure at any level, save the common denominator problem with housing accommodations courtesy of Turners Travel and Tours (the single company assigned by the S.A. government to handle accommodations for over 15,000 guests in a city with only 6,000 registered hotel/bed 'n breakfast units). Turners, in a word, was not equal to the task.

What did blacks in the US get out of the WCAR and the NGO Forum?

-- We participated on a world stage with several thousand other groups, organizations and individuals.

-- We gave voice to several perceptions of harm being done internationally to women, caste groups, nationalist groups, apartheid victims, etc.

-- We represented ourselves well. The Conference Declarations and Programs of Action are to be put into various implementation projects worldwide, and we had significant input. We rallied, demonstrated, negotiated, and communicated with the best and worst of them, and we showed some skills and aplomb at international protocol, diplomacy and analysis. As African Americans we were not marginalized at these two conferences, although our own U.S. government relentlessly attempted to do that to us.

-- We networked broadly and grandly. We now know of reparations advocates in Brazil, Jamaica, Belize, Tanzania, France, Senegal, Columbia, Zimbabwe, Cuba, Libya, South Africa, etc.

-- We got a real feel for how deep and wide the growing international movement is, and a closer scrutiny of the depth of the opposition. The United Council of Churches was there, so were several Presbyterian groups, and the United Methodists as advocates of reparations for African and African Americans. Black American church groups were conspicuous by their absence.

-- We gave primary recognition and re-introduced ourselves to a whole slew of heroes and sheroes in this effort: Jamaica's 85-year-old Dudley Thompson, who is a superb negotiator; December 12th's Viola Plummer and Roger Wareham; Fidel Castro; Adjoa Aiyetoro; the Black Political Leadership Forum; N'COBRA; the National Black United Front; reparations lawyer Charles Ogletree; Danny Glover and Harry Belafonte; and the Africa and African Descendants Caucus, to name but a few.

-- We learned once again that rhetoric and passion simply are not, and will not be, enough if victory, rather than merely noise and publicity, is our real goal. We've got to hit the books and records hard and develop tight, tight arguments. The European Union came to the WCAR coordinated with denials, excuses and counter-arguments for virtually everything we had, and they ran a strong tag-team assault on our reparations positions in virtually every commission, every meeting and every discussion. If we plan on running with and conquering the big dogs of this particular war, we better get our stuff very much together, and we are clearly not yet there.

-- We attended and frequently participated in many of the hundreds of panel discussions and information forums presented at the WCAR. There were too many great ones to name here, but a new UNESCO historical project on the Slave Trade Routes, Peoples, Issues and Resolutions was presented (mostly in French, with excellent work by the translators). Other issues included: A full elaboration of the May 2001 French law that declared the Trans-Atlantic Slave Trade a crime against humanity and promised future discussions on possible compensation; racism and the media; issues of women's status in relation to racism, sexism other forms of intolerance; racism in the criminal justice system in international perspective; racism in Japan, were some of them. The learning opportunities at both conferences were immense.

-- We got a clearer vision of what this is all about and what we have to do.

-- We learned, again, about the perils of little or no communication between allies in a major battlefront. We handicap ourselves and sap our own strength. Too often, one group of African Americans was doing one thing, while another group operated as if it was fighting alone, and another acted as though it was the only group that counted and that could speak for us all: altogether sometimes confusing issues and negotiating partners unnecessarily, and all sometimes canceling each other's efforts

and hard work.

-- We learned that we are not alone and we have some permanent friends.

-- We learned that we better choose our own leaders and spokespeople better, or they will anoint themselves to our detriment. Rev. Jackson, for example, did a lot of speaking for us without consulting any of us, and he did not always get it right.

I have "tons" of paper and documents that I have to sort through and organize for some public presentations back in L.A. And yes, I do have quite a few pictures (at least, I think I do; the security scans which we had to go through at least 50 times, hopefully didn't zap them).

First, however, I need some sleep.

By Dr. David Horne

Dr. Horne teaches at California State University-Northridge.

Distributed by HYPE,

H|Y|P|E Information Service > Your "Talking Drum"

www.afrikan.net/hype > ytoure@mindspring.com > 404.767.1275 > USA

www.afrikan.net/hype, mediablacks@hotmail.com

Submitted by TheBlackList@topica.com




September 9, 2001


The theme of reparations for the illegal trans-Atlantic slave trade and the enslavement of millions of Africans in the "New World", and for European colonialism of the African continent was a major theme at this conference. This demand for financial reparations, as well as a formal apology, was stated quite forcefully by the African and African Descendants NGO caucus, especially by Africans from America, and the theme was picked upon by the African countries who had formed a bloc to demand reparations from the European Union, and countries active in the slave trade like Spain, England, Portugal, Britain, Holland and others. Slavery was described as a "crime against humanity", and demands were for development funds to rebuild Africa, since Europe as a technologically developed and industrial based economy was built off the sweat and blood of the peoples of Africa. The Europe Union, however, was extremely resistant to this characterization of its oppression of the continent, since it realizes that this would open itself up to litigation if it admitted guilt, not to mention expose the historical crimes of developing white capitalist governments in its desire for markets, cheap labor, and free material resources.

The plunder by Europe was real, just as the enslavement, rape and murder of millions of African in the Americas has been documented. But one thing that became readily apparent at this conference is that Europe and the West will not give up their stolen wealth without a fight, regardless of who knows of their criminal history. Many came to the conference however naively believing that somehow moral pressure or mass publicity alone would compel a settlement, but this was not to be. And although they achieved an international alliance around the desire for reparations, there is still no international organization to fight for those gains. First, the United Nations bureaucrats simply will not allow real empowerment of the poor, nor end racism with their useless entreaties to the rich countries. They would rather like to empower lawyers and international lobbyists to get grants and fees to act as advocates for poor and racially oppressed masses, but they don't want to hear from the poor themselves.

Any honest evaluation of the conference would show that this conference was set up for lawyers and non-profit association/civil rights bureaucrats. The poor only had a voice in this conference when thousands of landless "squatters", workers, students, indigenous peoples and others protested in the streets *outside* the conference venue. This class difference was one of the most blatant and disheartening features of the conference itself, too many were marginalized and had their cries muffled. These were both oppressed and indigenous peoples.


Another reason that the conference was limited in what it could produce as far as reparations is because the African heads of state were proven to be so weak because of a neo-colonial relationship with the West, and especially American capitalist institutions like the World Bank, International Monetary Fund, WTO, and others. This dependent financial status means that the economies of these African countries are subordinate to France, the US, Britain, etc., the same as always, and shows us that they are not reliable allies in a struggle to challenge the capitalist world system about the living conditions for Black workers and the poor. They started out with demands for reparations, but before it was over they were down on their knees and begging for development aid and capitalist investments, thus condoning more robbery by the same group of international exploiters, and the continued domination of the South by the North. No doubt the irony of this dawned on others as well. Let us understand that we must fight here, not delegate power to politicians, lawyers, preachers or heads of state.

Again, the 2-day General Strike of millions of South African workers, and the demonstration by the Durban Social Forum on the first day of the conference (August 31st) shows us a way forward. A movement against capitalism, and its exploitation in America, and a Black freedom movement with its mind on total liberation is where we should be going. Certainly we cannot accept financial reparations as a full settlement of our claims against the U.S. and European governments, but they must rather be part of a comprehensive liberation agenda. Reparations alone will not make us free or self-governing in either America or Africa. There is no easy path to freedom.

Neither the African governments, nor the United Nations, can end racism or ethnic oppression by government fiat. They can call for reforms in the system, they can call for the "rule of international law", and they can appeal to the "self interest" of the capitalist corporations as UN Secretary General Kofi Annan continued to do throughout the conference. But without the application of sanctions on oppressive or racist governments, no UN declarations have any meaning, it's just legalistic rhetoric. But then this is not the 1960s, when the anti-colonial movements were going from victory to victory with wars of liberation, and it was just a mere matter for the bureaucrats to endorse what the people were already making real. In the current period, there is basically defeatism and opportunism dominating social relations now, and the anti-colonial movement and its wars of liberation have been replaced with neo-colonial diplomatic settlements which preserve capitalism. That is precisely what happened in South Africa in 1994, when the ANC sold out to De Beers corporation and the other super-rich, paving their way to power. I believe that some of us who came to this conference saw that the ANC government is a capitalist caretaker regime, that barks when the white rich says bark, and bites whom the rich say bite. They bite the poor with privatization schemes for basic utilities, they bite imprisoned political activists like Mzwakhe Mbuli, and they take a bite out of students, the landless, and others who protest the economic and political arrangements of the new South Africa. Like Frantz Fanon said in "The Wretched of the Earth", anti-colonial forces can be heroic in one period, cowardly collaborators in the next.


The biggest failing to me with the conference was in failing to charge the Western powers (especially the USA) with genocide, oppression, and exploitation in the *current period* and then building movements to fight racism and neo-colonialism. We have 1,000,000 Black people in the prison system, mostly black youth; there are upwards of 1,000 members of oppressed racial groups killed by the police in the USA each year; there is massive poverty concentrated in the Black and Brown communities, there is a CIA generated drug trade, and government-sponsored terrorism of all sorts, but the conference's focus was on historical forms of slavery and exploitation. There was virtually no real discussion about building a mass movement to fight racism and the capitalist system which upholds it. The few discussions which were held didn't talk about building any form of grassroots campaigns, but instead counseled us to rely on the South African Human Rights Commission, the UN, or other governmental bodies in our host countries. They talked about legal complaints, lobbying, and the "proper way" of appealing to heads of state. What they didn't mention, and did not mean to, was how the poor and racially oppressed can build an international direct action protest movement to destabilize the international capitalist system, and to really win any concessions on reparations from host governments and multinational corporations, beat back privatization, police brutality, poverty, and other ills in the world. We clearly need a new fight-back movement worldwide, not just another group of slick lawyers among the oppressed peoples who will then rise up to oppress their own as agents of the rich themselves. We cannot fight for partial gains, and then leave these capitalist blood-suckers alive with their system intact.



What this conference showed is how weak the NGOs are under the United Nations system, and how subordinate they are to governments (although some argument can be made about Africans from American continuing to organize after the U.S. withdrawal). Neither the UN bureaucrats or government officials showed they had any respect for us at all. Treated us like children or cattle, including dumping us in a huge cricket stadium to meet in tents, while the bureaucrats and government officials met in air-conditioned comfort inside the International Convention Center, which was used by business trade shows ordinarily. Why the whole thing was not held inside the ICC is beyond me, except to make the point that NGOs don't matter as many delegates told me over and over again. But then the bureaucrats couldn't wear their $1,000 suits outside in the heat.

Over the course of five days, we sweated (literally!) to come up with a declaration and recommended action program, which was then totally rejected out of hand by Mary Robinson, UN High Commissioner for Human Rights, who stated that it had "hateful and hurtful" language about Israel's oppression of the Palestinian people. She openly flaunted her disrespect in our faces, and refused to even recommend the NGO final document to the WCAR.

This just shows us that the NGOs and various oppressed peoples need to organize independently of the governments and the UN system, and in their own interest. They must build a more powerful movement both inside and outside the United Nations system. They must and should preserve the international platform at the United Nations, but should demand dual power, that is, some form of *power sharing*, rather than being mere subjects of a national government or human rights lobby like the UN. We need a mass international organization against racism, colonialism, caste oppression, gender/sexual oppression, and various other forms of oppression which were exposed at the WCAR, therefore we need some basis of unity to fight for each other's agenda. We need a broad-based movement that can unite with anti-globalization and liberation forces, Black community organizations, student groups, workers and others to transform society, not just reform the United Nations system.

We saw the beginning of this new movement with the Durban Social Forum demonstration on the first day of the World Conference Against Racism, when 20,000 rank-and-file union organizers, land reformers, anti-capitalists protesters, supporters of the liberation of Palestine, and anti-racists from various countries came together for a mass anti-government/anti-capitalist protest at the International Convention Center, where the WCAR was being held. A new grassroots movement has been created, which many believe will reshape South African politics forever. But to keep it from descending into the pit of opportunism and sectarianism, it must be a primarily anti-authoritarian movement, rather than a political party of would-be and professional politicians, or members of the upper classes. Of course, from being part of the demonstration and talking to various activists, it is clear that they already are aware of these dangers.

Such a direct action movement on an international level could more effectively deal with UN officials and national governments, and not only compel respect for a radical agenda, but lead to actual power-sharing for the NGOs. Only a few well-connected NGOs who served on the International Steering Committee (ISC) even knew what was happening at the conference, and they kept that knowledge pretty much to themselves. The ISC and the host NGO abruptly changed the agenda without notification or explanation. An international NGO federation could bring an end to the kind of abuses we witnessed at the WCAR and open the process to the masses of affected peoples all over the world. It could also make sure that we are never disrespected again by UN bureaucrats, and that the government officials will not be able to sell us out. We have to use the UN just like we do any other institution, to fight for our rights to survive and live in freedom, to build international alliances, and to let the world know of the crimes of government and capitalism.

By Lorenzo Komboa Ervin <komboa@yahoo.com>

Submitted by brc-news@lists.tao.ca



Jamaica Gleaner

October 9, 2001

This is not an official report, on the recent conference held in Durban, Africa, which saw an attendance of some several thousands from various governments, as well as non government organisations (NGO) and who debated for over one week at the World Conference Against Racism - xenophobia, human rights, slavery, discrimination and other related matters (WCAR).

This conference achieved much, but not as much as it could have, if it did not see, part way through the session, the withdrawal by the official delegates of the United States of America and of Israel. I think this was unfortunate because the United States, the only superpower, had an excellent opportunity of stating her case before the world.

One thing is certain, the prominence given to Reparation has placed this topic at last on the international agenda for serious consideration. Despite the absence of those two countries the UN Secretariat, under the excellent guidance of the President and Secretary, kept the conference on course and even managed to extend the discussion beyond the date for its closure, so as finally to arrive at a consensus.

The following are personal observations made by me as a member of the Group of Eminent Persons (GEP) mandated by the Organisation of African Unity in 1993, to study the effects of slavery, colonialism and their aftermath on Africa and people of African decent. We have been working steadily ever since in different parts of the world and aside from Barbados and Cuba, very little on this subject has been done in the Caribbean to sensitise the public as to the importance of Reparation.

This is largely because most people do not like to think about slavery, but more so, because they misunderstand entirely what Reparation is about. It is not about the payment by white people as a punishment for what they did to black people.

The word comes from 'Repare' meaning to repair. It is based historically on the fact that from the 15th Century plunderers from Europe kidnapped millions of black people from Africa, transporting them in the hideous conditions of the slave ships across the Atlantic.

They forced them to be slaves under the whip on the plantations of the sugar and cotton fields. This made certain white countries rich, while the African countries remained poor and underdeveloped. The normal development of that continent Africa was literally raped and lost her best men and women, millions of them over four centuries and became undeveloped while their captors became wealthy.

Many of the cities of Europe and the New World were built on the sweat and blood of slavery. I may quote the words of Sir Winston Churchill, one of England's greatest Prime Ministers: "Our possessions in the West Indies gave us the strength and the wealth, but about all the wealth which enabled us to overcome the Napoleonic Wars and to succeed the highly competitive period of the 19th and 20th Centuries, while the rest of Europe did not have these resources and to become the great Empire that we are today".

We are not asking for a penalty for these wrongs. History will show the following three features:

1. The Atlantic slave trade is the great source from which the twin evils of modern slavery and racial prejudice were born.

This is not to say that there was not slavery before, but none of those other ethnic conflicts sought to dehumanise people as systematic exploitation for economic greed.

2. The slaves never gave up on their struggle for freedom although they had been separated by thousands of miles and many generations. This struggle for freedom continued in slavery revolts and rebellions.

It was continued by such abolitionists as Frederick; Douglas of America; Buxton of the United Kingdom; Harriet Tubman, that brave black woman, herself a slave who taught herself to read and write and later developed the 'underground railway'. The underground railway later rescued thousand of slaves from the south and transported them to freedom in the north at great risk to her own life.

3. When eventually in the 1830s Emancipation was proclaimed throughout the British Empire, it was the slave owners who received reparations of over two billion pounds sterling by today's valuation, for the rights they had in their slaves. On the other hand, the slaves received nothing at all for the wrongs they suffered through the years in the process of making their masters rich. It cannot be said that the books were closed at Emancipation. The debt had not been paid.

In fact, slavery was not so much abolished as it was transformed into colonialism and the ensuing 130 years or so, saw the freed slaves demanding full Independence.

This call was given great support by the 5th Pan-African Conference in Manchester, England in 1945. I attended that conference, and there I saw such great leaders as Kwame Nkrumah of Ghana, Jomo Kenyatta of Kenya, W.E.B. Dubois of the United States of America, George Padmore of Trinidad, Sir Grantley Adams of Barbados, Ken Hill of Jamaica among others. They left that conference with the stirring words of Nkrumah in their hearts, "to seek first the political kingdom".

Free to starve

Within 20 years after the conference, over 50 countries gained their Independence. Although at the time of the conference only a handful of three, Haiti, Egypt and Ethiopia were freed.

We gained Independence in the 1960s. They gave us our government, our anthem, our flag, etc. They gave us the Crown but kept the jewels. We were free, free to starve in a highly competitive world. We were burdened with debt from the start, and still are in debt today. Political Independence without economic strength is illusory. Once more the debt had not been paid, the books had not been closed.

Reparation is a movement aimed at closing these accounts, not merely by the payment of money, but by repairing the damage done to Africa, Africans and the people of African decent, that is, black people.

Some of the ways in which this can be done include the following:

1. Relief from foreign debt. This would cost less than one month of modern warfare.

2. Power-sharing, i.e., granting Africans a position on such world bodies as the IMF and the World Bank.

3. Massive skills training to the youths of the developing world.

4. Development of infrastructure.

5. An African Marshall Plan. After the devastation of African economy, this would be more justifiable than the Marshall Plan to Europe after the last war.

6. The return of artifacts and treasures stolen from Africa.

I stated that this was not a penalty. There have been legal precedence such as the payment of millions of dollars to the native Indians, to the Jews, to the Eskimos of Canada, the Aborigines of Australia, the Maoris of New Zealand and others, so there is both a legal basis as well as moral grounds for the claim.

It is to be noted that his Holiness, the Pope, who recently visited Africa asked us to forgive the enslavers for this crime against humanity. It may be easy to forgive, but impossible to forget that Africa and its people were the only targets that this crime has ever been imposed upon in this manner. To those who say that slavery is a 'long ago thing', we say that present day racism lingers on as the direct results of what happened after the African slave trade. Here began this policy of dehumanisation after the ferry of infamy crossed the Atlantic Ocean. There began the polarisation of society into white masters and black slaves

- the myth of white superiority and black inferiority

The historic effects vary from country to country, but reparations seek to remove the economic, political, social and cultural disparities in our march towards an inseparable humanity. Reparation is not a plea for charity. It is a demand for justice.

By Dudley Thompson, Q.C. <dudjt@aol.com>

Gleaner Company


Ambassador Dudley Thompson, Q.C., was Jamaica's envoy to Nigeria and Cabinet Minister during the 1970s

Submitted by brc-news@lists.tao.ca




Jamaica Gleaner

October 9, 2001

This is not an official report, on the recent conference held in Durban, Africa, which saw an attendance of some several thousands from various governments, as well as non government organisations (NGO) and who debated for over one week at the World Conference Against Racism - xenophobia, human rights, slavery, discrimination and other related matters (WCAR).

This conference achieved much, but not as much as it could have, if it did not see, part way through the session, the withdrawal by the official delegates of the United States of America and of Israel. I think this was unfortunate because the United States, the only superpower, had an excellent opportunity of stating her case before the world.

One thing is certain, the prominence given to Reparation has placed this topic at last on the international agenda for serious consideration. Despite the absence of those two countries the UN Secretariat, under the excellent guidance of the President and Secretary, kept the conference on course and even managed to extend the discussion beyond the date for its closure, so as finally to arrive at a consensus.

The following are personal observations made by me as a member of the Group of Eminent Persons (GEP) mandated by the Organisation of African Unity in 1993, to study the effects of slavery, colonialism and their aftermath on Africa and people of African decent. We have been working steadily ever since in different parts of the world and aside from Barbados and Cuba, very little on this subject has been done in the Caribbean to sensitise the public as to the importance of Reparation.

This is largely because most people do not like to think about slavery, but more so, because they misunderstand entirely what Reparation is about. It is not about the payment by white people as a punishment for what they did to black people.

The word comes from 'Repare' meaning to repair. It is based historically on the fact that from the 15th Century plunderers from Europe kidnapped millions of black people from Africa, transporting them in the hideous conditions of the slave ships across the Atlantic.

They forced them to be slaves under the whip on the plantations of the sugar and cotton fields. This made certain white countries rich, while the African countries remained poor and underdeveloped. The normal development of that continent Africa was literally raped and lost her best men and women, millions of them over four centuries and became undeveloped while their captors became wealthy.

Many of the cities of Europe and the New World were built on the sweat and blood of slavery. I may quote the words of Sir Winston Churchill, one of England's greatest Prime Ministers: "Our possessions in the West Indies gave us the strength and the wealth, but about all the wealth which enabled us to overcome the Napoleonic Wars and to succeed the highly competitive period of the 19th and 20th Centuries, while the rest of Europe did not have these resources and to become the great Empire that we are today".

We are not asking for a penalty for these wrongs. History will show the following three features:

1. The Atlantic slave trade is the great source from which the twin evils of modern slavery and racial prejudice were born.

This is not to say that there was not slavery before, but none of those other ethnic conflicts sought to dehumanise people as systematic exploitation for economic greed.

2. The slaves never gave up on their struggle for freedom although they had been separated by thousands of miles and many generations. This struggle for freedom continued in slavery revolts and rebellions.

It was continued by such abolitionists as Frederick; Douglas of America; Buxton of the United Kingdom; Harriet Tubman, that brave black woman, herself a slave who taught herself to read and write and later developed the 'underground railway'. The underground railway later rescued thousand of slaves from the south and transported them to freedom in the north at great risk to her own life.

3. When eventually in the 1830s Emancipation was proclaimed throughout the British Empire, it was the slave owners who received reparations of over two billion pounds sterling by today's valuation, for the rights they had in their slaves. On the other hand, the slaves received nothing at all for the wrongs they suffered through the years in the process of making their masters rich. It cannot be said that the books were closed at Emancipation. The debt had not been paid.

In fact, slavery was not so much abolished as it was transformed into colonialism and the ensuing 130 years or so, saw the freed slaves demanding full Independence.

This call was given great support by the 5th Pan-African Conference in Manchester, England in 1945. I attended that conference and there I saw such great leaders as Kwame Nkrumah of Ghana, Jomo Kenyatta of Kenya, W.E.B. Dubois of the United States of America, George Padmore of Trinidad, Sir Grantley Adams of Barbados, Ken Hill of Jamaica among others. They left that conference with the stirring words of Nkrumah in their hearts, "to seek first the political kingdom".

Free to starve

Within 20 years after the conference, over 50 countries gained their Independence. Although at the time of the conference only a handful of three, Haiti, Egypt and Ethiopia were freed.

We gained Independence in the 1960s. They gave us our government, our anthem, our flag, etc. They gave us the Crown but kept the jewels. We were free, free to starve in a highly competitive world. We were burdened with debt from the start, and still are in debt today. Political Independence without economic strength is illusory. Once more the debt had not been paid, the books had not been closed.

Reparation is a movement aimed at closing these accounts, not merely by the payment of money, but by repairing the damage done to Africa, Africans and the people of African decent, that is, black people.

Some of the ways in which this can be done include the following:

1. Relief from foreign debt. This would cost less than one month of modern warfare.

2. Power-sharing, i.e., granting Africans a position on such world bodies as the IMF and the World Bank.

3. Massive skills training to the youths of the developing world.

4. Development of infrastructure.

5. An African Marshall Plan. After the devastation of African economy, this would be more justifiable than the Marshall Plan to Europe after the last war.

6. The return of artefacts and treasures stolen from Africa.

I stated that this was not a penalty. There have been legal precedence such as the payment of millions of dollars to the native Indians, to the Jews, to the Eskimos of Canada, the Aborigines of Australia, the Maoris of New Zealand and others, so there is both a legal basis as well as moral grounds for the claim.

It is to be noted that his Holiness, the Pope, who recently visited Africa asked us to forgive the enslavers for this crime against humanity. It may be easy to forgive, but impossible to forget that Africa and its people were the only targets that this crime has ever been imposed upon in this manner. To those who say that slavery is a 'long ago thing', we say that present day racism lingers on as the direct results of what happened after the African slave trade. Here began this policy of dehumanisation after the ferry of infamy crossed the Atlantic Ocean. There began the polarisation of society into white masters and black slaves.

- the myth of white superiority and black inferiority

The historic effects vary from country to country, but reparations seek to remove the economic, political, social and cultural disparities in our march towards an inseparable humanity. Reparation is not a plea for charity. It is a demand for justice.

By Dudley Thompson, Q.C. <dudjt@aol.com>

Gleaner Company


Ambassador Dudley Thompson, Q.C., was Jamaica's envoy to Nigeria and Cabinet Minister during the 1970s

Submitted by brc-news@lists.tao.ca

[Very informative and very well said. T.Y., Editor]


October 7, 2001
The following contains information related to a Resolution supporting Congressman John Conyers, Jr.'s legislation HR 40 which seeks a study of slavery of African Americans and the effects of slavery on contemporary African Americans.
The following resolution was requested by the Passaic County Reparations Coalition, which I am privileged to Chair, last year and approved by the Board of Freeholders, however, as you can see from the date, the resolution was not issued until September 25, 2001. Better late than never.
Please add this resolution to others that have been passed by legislatures in the past. I now intend to pursue resolution from the sixteen municipalities that make up the Passaic County Government. I will keep your office advised of all progress.
La Luta Continua
Rev. Ron Gross, Chairman
Passaic County Reparations Coalition
September 25, 2001
WHEREAS over 4 million Africans and their descendants were enslaved in the United States and colonies that became the United States from 1619 to 1865: and
WHEREAS the institution of slavery was constitutionally and statutorily sanctioned by the Government of the United States from 1789 through 1865: and
WHEREAS the slavery that flourished in the United States constituted an immoral and inhumane deprivation of African’s life, liberty, African citizenship rights, and cultural heritage, and denied them the fruits of their own labor; and
WHEREAS sufficient inquiry has not been made into the effects of the institution of slavery on living African Americans and society in the United States; and
WHEREAS to address the above stated issues, Congressman John Conyers, 14th Congressional District of Michigan, introduced Bill H.R. 40 into Congress this year and every year previous to this one since 1989, proposing to enact the "Commission to Study Reparation Proposals for African Americans Act"; and
WHEREAS the purpose of this bill is to acknowledge the fundamental injustice, cruelty, brutality, and inhumanity of slavery in the United States and the 13 American colonies between 1619 and 1865 and to establish a commission to examine the institution of slavery, subsequently de jure and de facto racial and economic discrimination against African-Americans, and the impact of these forces on living African-Americans, to make recommendations to the Congress on appropriate remedies, and for other purposes; and
WHEREAS the matters to be addressed by this bill are of great importance to the people of Passaic County and are therefore encouraged and supported by the Board of Chosen Freeholders of the County of Passaic; and
WHEREAS the Board of Chosen Freeholders of the County of Passaic previously expressed our support for this bill and would like to go on record as the supporting the passage of such.
NOW THEREFORE BE IT RESOLED by the Board of Chosen Freeholders of the County of Passaic that it hereby wishes to go on record as supporting the passage of H.R. 40 proposing to enact the : Commission to Study Reparation Proposals for African Americans Act".
BE IT FURTHER resolved that a certified copy of this Resolution be forwarded to all members of the Congressional Delegation representing the State of New Jersey.
Dated: September 25, 2001
Georgia D. Scott
Cuccinello: Aye Eagler: Aye
Gallagher: Aye Mecca: Aye
Porter: Absent Rosado: Aye
Scott: Aye
cc: County Counsel
County Administration
Certified copy: To all members of the Congressional Delegation
Requested by:
William J. Pascrell, III - County Counsel
Submitted by brc-reparations@yahoogroups.com & amcgee@well.com (Art McGee)
From: Aurevouche Dorothy B. Lewis
N'COBRA, National Co-Chair


Race, Racism and the Law
Speaking Truth to Power!


NGO Forum, World Conference Against Racism, Racial Discrimination Xenophobia and Related Intolerance, Durban, South Africa, August 27-Sept 1, 2001

This page is part of much larger document.

Programme of Action


The United Nations and States shall:

70. Recognising that the Trans-Atlantic, Trans-Saharan and Trans-Indian Ocean slave trade and slavery constitute crimes against humanity and were based on economic exploitation, doctrines of racial supremacy and racial hatred and have subjected Africans and African descendants, Indigenous Peoples and many others to the most horrific denigration of their being including classification as sub-humans and chattel, subjugation to rape, forced labour, branding, lashings, murder, maiming, destruction of their languages, cultures, psychological and spiritual well-being resulting in structural subordination which continues to the present.

71. Slave-holder nations, colonizers and occupying countries have unjustly enriched themselves at the expense of those people that they enslaved and colonized and whose land they have occupied. As these nations largely owe their political, economic and social domination to the exploitation of Africa, Africans and Africans in the Diaspora they should recognize their obligation to provide these victims just and equitable reparations.

72. The Trans-Atlantic Slave Trade, slavery and colonialism is a crime against humanity because of its abhorrent barbarism, its magnitude, long duration, numbers of people brutalized and murdered and because of their negation of the very essence of humanity of their victims, therefore, reparations programs must be comprehensive enough in addressing all areas of concern including economic, educational, health, land ownership and possession as well as the racially biased systems of administration of justice that brutalize Africans and people of African Descent.

73. The Trans-Saharan and Trans-Indian Ocean Slave Trades and slavery must also be acknowledged and recognised as crimes against humanity, which brutalised communities and stripped people of their dignity, and for which those communities must receive justice and redress.

74. There is an unbroken chain from the slave trade, slavery, colonialism, foreign occupation, apartheid, racial discrimination and the contemporary forms of structural racism that maintain barriers to the full and equal participation of the victims of racism and discrimination in all spheres of public life;

75. The enslavement of Indigenous Peoples, the appropriation of their lands and exploitation of their resources must be acknowledged and repaired and the historic precedents for reparations to the victims of gross violations of human rights should be applied to them;

76. Victims of declared and undeclared wars throughout the world have had their human rights violated because of their race, ethnicity and the intersection of race, ethnicity and gender and disability and are in need of reparation;

233. We demand that educational curricula reflect the accurate historical experiences of both the victims and the perpetrators of the Trans Atlantic SlaveTrade, Trans-Saharan and Trans-Indian Ocean Slave Trade, Slavery and Colonialism.

234. Therefore, we call for the establishment of an international tribunal within one year to document the character and extent of harm derived from the Trans-Atlantic slave trade, Trans-Saharan and Trans-Indian Ocean Slave Trade, slavery and colonialism which are crimes against humanity.

235. Urge governments in Cameroon, Mauritania, Niger and Sudan that engage in any form of slavery to eradicate this practice. In particular, laws abolishing traditional slavery should include reparations for the victims of these violations. Criminal sanctions should be imposed on perpetrators of these crimes. States should recognize the human rights of these victims, including their political, social, economic, cultural and civil rights.

236. We demand that the United States, Canada, and those European and Arab nations that participated in and benefited from the Trans Atlantic Slave Trade, the Trans-Sahara Slave Trade, the Trans-Indian Ocean Slave Trade, Slavery and the Colonization of Africa, within one year of the WCAR establish an international compensatory mechanism for victims of these crimes against humanity.

237. Ensure that, in accordance with universally recognised human rights norms and standards, all nations, groups and their members who are the victims of crimes against humanity based on race, colour, caste, descent, ethnicity or indigenous or national origin are provided reparations;

238. Ensure that the perpetrators and beneficiaries of the Trans-Atlantic Slave Trade, Slavery, Colonialism, Foreign Occupation acknowledge that these polices and practices are crimes against humanity;

239. Create programs of reparations for the victims of crimes against humanity and violations of human rights reaching the masses of the victimized and not merely an elite few and designed to address the specific character of the peoples injured that include:

Slavery, Colonialism, Foreign Occupation acknowledge that these polices and practices are crimes against humanity;

240. Restitution encompassing the unconditional return of land, heritage icons and artifacts; the provision of land to those forced to leave their homelands and forcibly resettled in foreign lands; cancellation of debt of countries victimized by these crimes against humanity including African countries and impoverished countries in the Americas;

241. Monetary compensation that will repair the victims, including Africa, Africans and African descendants, by closing the economic gap created by these crimes and encompassing debt cancellation, programs for creation and enhancement of participation in production enterprises; full accessibility and affirmative inclusion in all levels of employment opportunity; grants of cash payments based on assessment of losses resulting from the violations of human rights and crimes against humanity;

242. Restoration including release of all political prisoners, providing for health care, including mental health care, educational and social services that are specifically designed to correct the injuries caused by the violations of human rights and crimes against humanity;

243. Satisfaction and guarantee of non-repetition includes the public acknowledgment of the crimes against humanity; the correction of the history of Africa, African and African descendants in educational materials and in the media; acknowledgment of the economic base of exploitation of the victims of crimes against humanity and violations of human rights and the unjust enrichment of the perpetrators;

244. Create an independent international and regional monitoring organization with the responsibility to assure that programs of reparations are designed and implemented with timetables and that satisfy the provisions of this programme of action are accomplished;

245. We call on all States to acknowledge the principle of reparations for the cultural, demographic, economic, political, social and moral wrongs of the Trans-Atlantic slave trade, Trans-Saharan slave trade, Trans-Indian Ocean slave trade, slavery and colonisation and that African and African Descendant victims reserve the right to determine the form and manner of reparations;

246. We call on all concerned African nations to take formal legal action to obtain the return of stolen cultural artifacts, gold, money, mineral wealth and the return of occupied land on the continent and call on the international community to support such actions.


Declaration and Programme of Action, NGO Forum, World Conference Against Racism, Racial Discrimination, Xenophobia and Related Intolerance, Durban, South Africa, August 27-Sept 1, 2001


Africans and African Descendants


Colonialism and Foreign Occupation




Slave Trade and Slavery


Submitted by BRC-REPARATIONS: Black Radical Congress - Reparations Caucus



The Black World Today

September 11, 2001

As the count down to the historical State of the Black World Conference (SOBWC) in Atlanta November 28 to December 2 begins, one thing is certain, the burning issue of reparations for Africans in America, the continent of Africa and the Caribbean will be one of the main focal points of the deliberations. As the Rev. Jesse L. Jackson remarked during the World Conference on Racism (WCAR), which recently concluded in Durban, South Africa, "reparations is an idea whose time has come."

Who could have predicted just a few short years ago that the United States government would be so terrified of facing up to its own history of sanction and complicity with slavery that Secretary of State Colin Powell would refuse to go to the conference, sending instead a low level delegation. And, who could have predicted that U.S. representatives would stage a walkout in the midst of the withering condemnation of Israel for its discriminatory policies against the Palestinians and Arab citizens of Israel and a major push by Africans in America, African nations and Non-Governmental Organizations to formally declare the trans-Atlantic slave trade a crime against humanity.

But that is exactly what happened -- the big bad, U.S. government, the world's one remaining super power, beat a hasty retreat and withdrew from the WCAR rather than face the aggrieved parties and dialogue on their petition for redress. The irony is not lost that for years at the height of apartheid in South Africa it was the United States that steadfastly advocated "constructive engagement" with the brutal White minority regime in that nation. At WCAR the U.S. government was exposed as a hypocrite and a coward. Far from being discouraged by the cowardly actions of the U.S., however, the broad global coalition of forces pushing for a discussion of reparations seized the moral and political high ground, generating tremendous momentum as the delegates return to their respective nations.

As the powerful delegation of Africans from America return to the U.S., the moral and political energy generated at WCAR will be channeled in many directions including the SOBWC which now must become a critical convergence point and catalyst for intensifying the struggle for reparations in this country. With this in mind, the conference planners have adjusted the schedule to build a direct link between WCAR and SOBWC. Dr. Raymond Winbush, Director of the influential Race Relations Institute at Fisk University in Nashville and Beni Ivey, Executive Director of the Center for Democratic Renewal in Atlanta have been asked to organize a briefing on WCAR. The panel of presenters will include Viola Plummer of the December 12th Movement and Dr. Conrad Worrill, National Chairman of the Black United Front among other organizational representatives who went to Durban.

In addition to the briefing, the Conference will include a major plenary session on reparations with a panel of presenters being organized by Dr. Jemadari Kamara, Director of the Black Studies and Haitian Studies Programs at Umass/Boston and the Chairman of the African American Institute for Research and Empowerment. The goal is to have representatives of the National Coalition of Blacks for Reparations in America (N'COBRA) and other key organizations and agencies advocating for reparations in the U.S., Africa and the Caribbean serve as panelists and resource persons for this crucial plenary session. And, of course, we expect Congressman John Conyers, Ranking Member of the House Judiciary Committee and Dean of the Congressional Black Caucus to be a part of this panel. As Convener of SOBWC, I am hopeful that a reparations working group can be convened during the conference to discuss ways and means of forging greater operational unity and a united front at this critical juncture in the reparations movement.

As a longstanding proponent of reparations, I believe that the time is ripe for a massive coordinated campaign incorporating widespread popular education, litigation, legislation and direct action. In the last couple of years, the N'COBRA Legal Task Force has been painstakingly crafting a major legal case. In addition, Harvard Law Professor Charles Ogeltree has also assembled a legal team, which includes Johnny Cochran and Willie Gary to explore legal strategies to win reparations. Congressman Conyers continues to introduce HR-40, the Reparations Study Bill in the House of Representatives, and the time may be at hand to mount a major push to press for its enactment.

In terms of direct action, the concept of a Million People's March, which is being discussed, is an idea that I fully support. It is time for a "Million March" with a specific goal and outcome. Last but not least, I would hope that the Million March idea would be coupled with a call for economic sanctions targeted against one of the growing list of corporations that has been identified as participants and/or prime beneficiaries of slavery in the U.S. Break the back of a major corporation and the task of winning reparations will improve immensely.

The pace of the struggle to win reparations has picked up dramatically. Accordingly, the State of the Black World Conference must be utilized as an important forum to advance the cause of vindicating the trials, tribulations and triumphs of our ancestors. There can be no reconciliation without repairing the damages of enslavement. "Reparations is an idea whose time has come."

Submitted by Ron Daniels <ronmae@aol.com>

The Black World Today


[If we don’t demonstrate and make our voices heard, as well as protest for the lack of respect for the needs of Black Peoples, we will never acquire Civil Rights and Human Rights, and much less Reparations. My People, we are fighting for our survival and for our children. We must make this government know that we are serious! There is but one way to correct the damage done to the Black psyche, and that is to attain self determination and have our own communities governed by Black folks and based on our own cultures, economic, political, and social design. Remember, we lost everything, and everything we now have (just about) is accredited to those who took us captive. Our children must be taught again that "Black is beautiful" in such a way that we will take pride in ourselves and join together to make efforts to better our lifestyles, be they in the lands that took us captive, in Africa, or in other friendly countries. T.Y., Editor]





September 28, 2001


The U.S. walkout from the U.N.- called World Conference Against Racism held in Durban South Africa during August and September 2001 did not derail the Conference, as the American press predicted. It did not cause others to leave . In fact the Conference was a success with the creation of what has been called " a new world agenda."

The American NGOs can take considerable credit for a contribution to the positive result. While the NGO Forum ended in disarray without a democratic vote on its findings, they provided a tremendous support to

Governments in the positive aspects of their final Declaration.

The Conference dramatized the distance between U.S. policy and the new agenda adopted by the world for dealing with many major problems contributing to the current crisis. One might well ask the question, If the U.S had stayed would we now have a more enlightened policy towards the Arab States and the terrorist network? I will attempt to answer this at the end of this article.

Despite the conflicts, confrontations and walk outs, what emerged was a new agenda for global action by NGOs and Governments. The deliberations, debates and confrontations led finally to a declaration that included conciliation and recognition of human rights in the Middle East conflict and named slavery past and present, " a crime against humanity."

As Mary Robinson, the High Commissioner for Human Rights of the UN, put it: "I do not claim that this Conference has solved the problems of racism, racial discrimination, xenophobia and related intolerance. The issues have been addressed, not answered. But we have a framework. We have made a start and that is what counts."


The Western press and particularly the American media dramatized the confrontation between the Palestinians Arabs and the Jewish and Israeli delegates. While emotional, this obscured important ideas and solutions to many other issues. Critical of Israel's human rights policies toward Palestine, the NGO Forum never approved some of the extreme statements of Arab delegates. In fact, the NGO Forum adopted a strong statement on the dangers of antisemitism which said in part, " Antisemitism is one of the oldest, most pernicious and prevalent forms of racism which still exists and is even increasing in many areas of the world." They condemned the rise of hate groups and the use of the Internet for spreading anti-Semitism world wide.

In both the NGO Forum and the Government Conference there were strong attacks against Israel for its Palestinian policies and U.S. policy in the Middle East was widely criticized for its support of not only Israel but conservative Arab states. However, in the confusion of the closing session of the Forum the majority of the delegates never voted on the International Steering Committee statement and Mary Robinson refused to accept the " excessive language used against Israel."

The Governments, after a protracted debate, called for the end of violence in the Middle East and the swift resumption of peace negotiations, respect for international human rights and humanitarian law and respect for self-determination. This conciliation was persistently pushed by the European Union and, in an over time session, the Arab states finally acquiesced.

Much marching and demonstrating took place and it was important to note that some Jewish delegates marched with the Palestinians, protesting Israel's violent actions. This ultimate agreement aired the differences and laid the basis for a continuing attempt by the world to reach a peaceful resolution.

Institutional Racism

The most important and hopefully lasting accomplishment by both NGOs and Governments was to put on the world agenda several issues of "Institutional racism." and the identification of certain "crimes against humanity" punishable under international law. The proposed International Criminal Court was strongly endorsed in the Government and NGO statements.

Governments have rejected racism as an ideology or a direct policy. The old methods such as Apartheid and segregation have been abandoned. But in many instances discrimination by dominant groups and governments continue in new forms of inequality of opportunity and discrimination. South Africa was repeatedly praised for its multi-racial accomplishments. Demonstrators in the streets led by the South African Trade Union COSATU protested that the Mbeki Government should not privatize industry and must provide jobs for Africans through land reform.

While racism was officially condemned, Americans, especially African Americans and Native Americans, were prominent in their denunciation of continuing forms of discrimination in economic opportunity and education. Native Americans criticized the institutional injustice prevalent in environment control and management of resources.

Several new NGOs from the U.S. were prominent on panels concerning institutional racism and supportive of the final declaration adopted. This writer presented a paper on "Environmental Injustice on the Rio Grande/Bravo." The Environmental Justice Center at Clark University in Atlanta sent several delegates led by Robert Ballard who is one of the pioneers on this topic. The NGO Forum adopted a strong statement on Environmental Racism which stated in part: " Environmental racism is a human rights violation and is a form of discrimination caused by government and private sector policy, practice, action or inaction which intentionally or unintentionally, disproportionately targets and harms the environment, health, biodiversity, local economy, quality of life and security of communities, workers, groups, and individuals based on race, class, color, gender, caste, ethnicity and/or national origin."

African Issues

There were hundreds of African American delegates to the NGO Forum who stayed after the NGO forum ended to lobby the Governments on African issues which included financial support for the AIDs programs of African states, debt cancellation and reparations for colonialism and slavery. The reparations issue was pushed primarily by African NGOs and African States. European support for this was led by France which had officially declared slavery in its old and new forms a crime against humanity. In the end the demands for compensation were set aside by the Governments and a compromise adopted which finally acknowledged "the slave trade and slavery were a crime against humanity and has always been."

However, the Europeans refused to accept any liability from this for reparations. To many African Americans like Jesse Jackson and Africans such as Bishop Desmond Tutu this was failure to recognize the opportunity to do something to support sustainable development for the poor of Africa and the Caribbean through debt cancellation and financing of the world AIDs program. These were two programs strongly endorsed by both Conferences.

The NGO Forum called for reparations for slavery and colonialism:

"The enslavement of Indigenous Peoples, the appropriation of their lands and exploitation of their resources must be acknowledged and repaired and the historic precedents for reparations to the victims of gross violations of human rights should be applied to them." But the Governments, under Western pressure, only agreed to apologize while recognizing this had indeed been "a crime against humanity."

The recognition of this issue in debate by Governments has opened the way to more serious support for the needs of the disadvantaged peoples and states. The acceptance of wealthy countries of their responsibility for slavery carries with it a moral obligation to do more for the AIDs program in Africa and the cancellation of debt of Third World countries.

Indigenous Peoples

Native Americans First Peoples in Canada charged the official Declaration and Program of Action failed to accede to their demands for full recognition of their sovereignty and rights under international law. They united on behalf of over 350 million indigenous people in the world to demand the dropping of paragraph 27 in the Government Declaration which excluded them from protection by international law against crimes against humanity. The British and American official delegates(in the preparatory commissions) were the most strongly determined to retain the existing exemption of non-state peoples from this protection. And in the end their views prevailed. In a dramatic appearance before the assembled delegates the chiefs and leaders of the indigenous people warned they would withdraw from the Conference. It is significant to note that the NGO Forum had supported them in paragraph 63 of their statement regarding the applicability of international human rights law to indigenous peoples: "Indigenous Peoples are peoples within the full meaning of international law. Indigenous Peoples have the right to self-determination by virtue of which they freely determine their economic, social, political and cultural development and the inherent right to possession of all of their traditional and ancestral lands and territories." The Latin American NGOs were instrumental in the drafting of this statement.

Migrant Workers Numerous NGOs and governments from African, Asia and Latin America worked on behalf of the rights of migrant workers. Both Conferences adopted meaningful proposals for reform that were directed at changes in policy for European states and the North American continent. Arnoldo Garcia from California was the representative of the NGO, national network for immigrant and refugees rights who was a leader in the discussions over U.S. Latin American issues. Teresa Leal of the Southwest Network spoke for indigenous peoples on the border between Mexico and the U.S. The NGOs urged "ratification of numerous existing conventions on the rights of migrant workers." and interalia requested the granting of visas, work permits, better family conditions, housing and access to justice for people regardless of color, descent, or national origin.


Numerous minority issues were brought before both Conferences. The Dalits of India made a strong case against caste discrimination. Kurds and Romas(gypsies in Europe) were for the first time given recognition in an international conference such as this. Once again gender equality for all nations was proclaimed and states urged to not only ratify conventions in support of these rights, but as the Arab NGO Cairo Declaration Against Racism said, bring their own laws and practices into conformity with real equality for women.

Post Durban

The question of follow up after Durban was stressed by Kofi Annan who told the delegates that civil society would determine if the Conference had been a success. Mary Robinson who had put more than two years into the preparation for this gathering, urged everyone to go beyond this first step taken in Durban and work in their own countries for understanding and new policies.

This was particularly acute for American NGO delegates who returned to a country which suddenly realized it was at war. It will be very difficult to get the country and especially the Government to focus on this new world agenda. However, the rest of the world will continue to work from this first step in the assistance of victims of racism and xenophobia and other forms of intolerance.

In time the U.S Government will discover that military and violent approaches to the problems of the Middle East do not work. Europe experienced this some years earlier. American NGOs can continue to play a role in helping this country to realize the limits of force in North/South relations and the imperatives of negotiation and compromise.

Submitted by WCAR - World Conference Against Racism Xenophobia and Intolerance

From: randall@udayton.edu

To: WCAR-Updates@yahoogroups.com

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[Yes, in time the U.S. Government will realize quite a few things. One in particular is that racism and race hatred is destructive, and that the United States can never be termed "America the Beautiful" in light of the TransAtlantic Slave Trade and the injustices Descendants of Slaves face in this "Sweet Land of Liberty" for privileged Whites. T.Y., Editor]



The Black World Today

September 21, 2001

California Congresswoman Barbara Lee, a black Democrat, is gambling that she won't share the fate of Montana Republican Jeanette Rankin, Oregon Senator Wayne Morse, and Alaska Senator Ernest Gruening. Rankin cast the only congressional vote against Franklin Roosevelt's declaration of war against Japan following the Pearl Harbor attack in 1941. Morse and Gruening cast the only votes against the Tonkin Gulf resolution that gave Lyndon Johnson full power to wage war in Vietnam in 1965.

The voters didn't forgive or forget their dissent. Rankin left Congress in 1943, and Morse and Gruening were trounced in their re-election bids. Lee followed their example when she cast the lone vote against giving President Bush carte blanche to unleash war against terrorists. She ignored polls that show that a staggering number of Americans want a swift, pulverizing hit against terrorists even if that means body-bagging innocent civilians in the process. The vote was her personal message to Bush to think before lobbing bombs, cruise missiles, and ground troops at Afghanistan.

Lee is not off base in her dread that Bush's big stick will turn terrorist wanted man Osama bin Laden and the Afghan Taliban into mythic heroes among their supporters, swell the ranks of terror bombers, cripple relations with moderate Arab and Palestinian leaders, and torpedo chances for an Israeli-Palestinian deal. Some British and French officials, and Bush's Arab allies, have implored him to use caution and restraint in dealing with Afghanistan.

But the parallel to the dissent over America's entrance into World War II and Vietnam don't hold up. Much of the world was already at war when the Japanese attacked the U.S. military, and while the Vietnam war was a towering disaster, with heavy racist, and imperial overtones, the Americans that filled the body bags were mostly combatants. Those filling the bags at the Trade Center and Pentagon are clerks, typists, computer processors, security guards, fire fighters, and beat police officers. And, those European officials and Arab leaders that voiced mild dissent to U.S. war making in the next breath pledged their total support to any action Bush takes.

Lee also banks that in bucking Bush and the public's war mania she speaks for her core supporters, the black voters in the Berkeley and Oakland districts she represents. Lee claims that she received thousands of emails from those constituents urging her to take a stand against Bush and war. But this also rests on the shaky belief that blacks are less willing to back America's wars than whites. This is pure myth.

During America's wars, black protest has always given way to black patriotism. Black divisions distinguished themselves in the Civil War and the Spanish American War. During World War I, black scholar, and activist, W.E.B. Dubois in a Crisis Magazine editorial rallied blacks to the flag with a call to close ranks and forget their racial grievances. They flocked to a segregated army in droves. Patriotic fever among blacks soared during World War II. Black newspapers carried headlines "Buy a Liberty Bond and Win the War." Not only did blacks buy millions of dollars in war bonds, they also staged victory balls, rallies, and fund drives.

During the Korean conflict, blacks again dutifully trudged off to yet another foreign battlefield. The massive 1960s protests, and urban riots, heavyweight boxing champ, Muhammad Ali's draft refusal, the relentless attack by Malcolm X, the Black Panthers, and black power advocates on the Vietnam war as "racist," and "imperialist," did not dissuade blacks from fighting and dying in disproportionate numbers in Vietnam.

In the Gulf War in 1991, blacks composed more than one-third of the fighting force. When Congress voted unanimously to authorize Clinton to wage war against Serbia in 1998, other than Lee who cast the sole vote against the war resolution, and a small number of black militants, there was scarcely a murmur of opposition among blacks.

The week before the Trade Center and Pentagon terror attacks, Congressional Black Caucus members were savaging Bush for not attending the World Racism Conference, the Florida vote fraud, and his tax rebate that further drained billions from the budget coffers for health and education programs. The moment after the attacks, they instantly reversed gear, rallied round the flag, and with not a peep of public protest, other than Lee, backed Bush's war power resolution. The Black Caucus's most vocal Bush critics, Georgia representative, Cynthia McKinney and Texas Representative, Eddie Bernice Johnson, even issued public statements that sounded every bit as bellicose as Bush's.

The reflexive liberal politics of Lee's district, her long political tenure, and the short memory of voters virtually assure she'll be reelected in 2002. But Lee also gambles that eventually she'll be applauded for saying no to Bush. It would be nice to think that, but the national anguish for the thousands buried in the rubble of the Trade Center and the Pentagon make that unlikely to happen.

By Earl Ofari Hutchinson

The Black World Today


Earl Ofari Hutchinson is a nationally syndicated columnist and the president of the National Alliance for Positive Action. website www.natalliance.org

Submitted by alarkam@webtv.net


Congresswoman Barbara Lee should be commended for refusing to jump on President Bush's rush-to-war bandwagon. When Pharaoh Bush tells the world, "You are either with the U.S.A. or you are with the terrorists," he is also serving notice on all African-Americans, "You are either with the Caucasian ruling elite, or you are against it. I want you African-American men and women to fly overseas and bomb and kill anyone I order you to, while I deny you basic human rights right here in America." The real battle our people should be focusing on is the legal and spiritual battle for massive Reparations which is being waged inside the United Nations.

Please visit www.afre-ngo.org and donate to the Reparations War Chest.

Minister Malik Al-Arkam


Visit The Black World Today @ http://www.tbwt.com

[When the body bags come home, we know there will be business as usual, but will Blacks and Whites still support President Bush and re-elect him? And will these same Blacks and Whites - after all the togetherness and prayers and unity after September 11, - be ready to discuss justice served for the Descendants of Slaves. President Bush has the Armed Forces of NATO going after those responsible for the WTC and Pentagon attacks. Folks, we should have taken their initiative and gone after the Slave Masters and their descendants who reaped great wealth from the Slave Trade, after all, one act of revenge is just as good as another. T.Y., Editor]



September 20, 2001

Dear Representative Lee:

We, the Association of Africans and African-Americans, headquartered in Oakland, California, are proud to profess that we stand by you 100 percent in the stance that you took in voting against President Bush's call for military action subsequent to the disasters that took place on Tuesday, September 11, 2001; and we, indeed, support you for the courage you have shown in the face of adversity. We had hoped that President Bush would show restraint and obtain all the facts before making a decision that may change the United States and the world forever.

Representative Barbara Lee

426 Cannon House Office Bldg

Washington DC 20515

Phone: (202) 225-2661

Fax: (202 225-9817

1301 Clay Street, Suite 1000N

Oakland, CA 94612

Phone: (510) 763-0370

Fax: (510) 763-6538

Website: < www.house.gov/lee >

E-mail Address: < barbara.lee@mail.house.gov >

Gye Nyame

Association of Africans and African-Americans

Tunde Okorodudu, President

Karen C. Aboiralor, Deputy President

Nasiru Nikharo, Secretary

Queen E. Thurston, Treasurer and Chief Elder

Jeffrey Fletcher, Esq., President Emeritus



TheBlackList - "The New Negro World" / Satisfying the African Need to Know

Submitted by kcamm23063@aol.com



The Black Radical Congress (BRC)

September 28, 2001

Contact: Frances M. Beal, fmbeal@igc.org

Bill Fletcher Jr., bfletcher4@compuserve.com

The Honorable Barbara Lee

U.S. House of Representatives

426 Cannon House Office Building

Washington, DC 20515

Dear Representative Lee:

The Black Radical Congress salutes you for your courageous stand in opposing the House resolution to provide the U.S. President carte blanche in responding militarily to the horrific events of September 11, 2001. It is an infamous act of violence that brings grief and fear to all decent people at home and abroad. While most of our elected officials beat the war drums and promise to spill the blood of even more people - somewhere, or anywhere - it takes a person with an extraordinary level of integrity and political grit to stand alone against the jingoism that is sweeping the nation. You are proving to have such courage and we are proud that you have raised your voice for peace and justice at this time of crisis.

Please rest assured that you speak for thousands of people in this country who agree "that military action will not prevent further acts of international terrorism against the United States," as you put it in your intrepid argument against the race toward war.

In the years to come, we are sure that your name will shine brightly as a beacon of rationality and the lone voice of conscience in the halls of the U.S. Congress, at a critical time in our nation's history.

We will be doing everything in our power to activate our membership and our friends in the struggle for peace in the days to come. It is good to know we have such an ally in Congress.

Submitted by blackradicalcongress@mail.com (Black Radical Congress)

NOTE: When responding or sending us feedback about

this statement, please indicate whether we have your

permission to share your comments publicly, as part

of a broader discussion and debate. Thank you.

Black Radical Congress

National Office

Columbia University Station

P.O. Box 250791

New York, NY 10025-1509

Phone: (212) 969-0348

Email: blackradicalcongress@visto.com

Web: http://www.blackradicalcongress.org

BRC-PRESS: Black Radical Congress - Official Press Releases/Statements


McKinney Declares US Effort To Split Blacks Fails:

Black Unity Strengthened By U.S., European Threats

Slavery, Apology for Slavery, Colonialism, and Reparations

Remain Real Issues that won't go away.

September 10, 2001

(Washington, DC) The walkout of the United States Government was supposed to weaken the resolve of the participants in the third United Nations World Conference Against Racism (WCAR), begun August 31 and ending September 7 in Durban, South Africa.

It hasn't. In fact, "US behavior during the WCAR, has been so obnoxious and so transparent that it has served to strengthen the bonds between the world's minorities, in particular, African Americans and Africans, in a way that could never have been anticipated by the current Administration," stated McKinney.

Historically, there have been countless efforts by the US to undermine cooperation between African Americans and Africans as stated in National Security Council (NSC) Memorandum Number 46, penned in 1978 by then National Security Advisor, Zbigniew Brezezinski. This document outlines covert steps to be taken in order to thwart cooperation by black organizations in the United States and liberation movements on the African Continent.

As we look to Durban today, we see that the world's minorities have gathered in an unprecedented effort to stand together with one intent in mind: to lay their issues before an international audience. Although the immediate work of the US delegation was to try to satisfy African concerns about colonialism while sidestepping African and African American concerns about the slave trade, an apology, and reparations. The US plan to mollify the Africans at the expense of the African Americans backfired as these two groups have unified in an effort to push the issues of reparations and slavery forward even beyond WCAR.

In addition, seven Members of the US Congressional Black Caucus (CBC), led by CBC Chairwoman Eddie Bernice Johnson, dissented from the position of the US delegation by adopting the platform of African American non-governmental organizations participating in the WCAR. "We will continue to stand firm with our brothers and sisters on the Continent. Any effort to project division is not true. In fact, the only thing that divides us from our brothers on the Continent is the Trans Atlantic Slave Trade and we're together on the need for an apology and reparations for this crime against humanity," stated McKinney.

While in Durban, the members of the Congressional Black Caucus announced they are discussing the possibility of holding their own "Conference Against Racism in the United States in 2003."

By Cong. Cynthia McKinney

Press Release

Submitted by Minister Malik Al-Arkam


[The year 2003 is much too far away to have a "Conference Against Racism in the United States." Plans should have been started for this caliber of meeting immediately upon leaving Durban, South Africa. Anything can happen between now and 2003, as you can see with the WTC and Pentagon attacks. T.Y., Editor]




September 28, 2001

The U.S.A. has changed the name of its worldwide war against terrorism from "Infinite Justice" to "Enduring Freedom," after being advised that the original name would offend many Muslims who know that only Allah God can dispense ultimate justice.

Both names sound extremely ironic to the millions of African-Americans who for centuries have been victims of U.S. government practices of ethnocide, forced assimilation and institutionalized racism. Since being brought in chains to America 446 years ago our ancestors and their descendants have never experienced freedom, justice and equality under Caucasian rulership. To this day in 2001 we do not enjoy equal employment opportunities, equal business opportunities or equal justice under the law.

We should remember that the Administration of President George Bush, who now declares that he wants to rid the world of "all evil-doers," declared his total opposition to the concept of Reparations for African-Americans prior to the convening of the World Conference Against Racism. The U.S. government refused to participate in the WCAR for fear that both the U.S. and Israel would be held accountable for the many violations of human rights which they have committed.

The African-American people will only have freedom, justice and equality when we have established our collective political identity inside the international legal arena, secured broad Reparations, and won the right to erect our own government on some of this Earth that we can call our own. Since in recent months Rev. Jesse Jackson, Rev. Al Sharpton, Congresswoman Cynthia McKinney and several other notable figures have placed more emphasis on the Reparations issue, it is our hope and prayer that they and all influential African-Americans will join hands with the Honorable Silis Muhammad inside the United Nations to secure genuine justice for our long-oppressed people.

Minister Malik Al-Arkam


Submitted by brc-reparations@yahoogroups.com

BRC-REPARATIONS: Black Radical Congress - Reparations Caucus

[It’s hard to believe that President Bush doesn’t bite his tongue when he speaks about ridding the World of "all evil-doers." The United States wasn’t built on GOD’s concept of Righteousness. It was build on the backs of Slaves forced out of Africa. And if he were a Descendant of Slaves, he wouldn’t have any problems knowing who the real "terrorists" are. T.Y., Editor]





September 11, 2001


To some of us in Africa, it seems as if your new President is scared of getting involved. Whereas Clinton entertained us with his exploits, throwing apologies around liberally afterwards, Bush seems to prefer pre-climactic withdrawal. We are referring of course to the US government's premature departure from the World Conference Against Racism. This was the highest-profile pull-out ever staged by such a low-profile delegation. One wonders whether US officials were sent there with the express purpose of being withdrawn in protest.

What Bush overlooked is that the damage has already been done, and the United States cannot dodge its responsibility by its absence. The damage we are referring to is the legacy of centuries of conquest, subjugation and economic exploitation on the descendants of slaves and on colonized and indigenous peoples. Granted, Bill Clinton's apologies pale into insignificance by comparison.

In reality, the former colonial and slave-trading powers needed this conference more than the so-called victims. This was a unique opportunity for Western governments to look on politely while representatives of the poor and marginalized aired their grievances, and for those governments to make a symbolic gesture in the direction of their victims -- infinitely preferable to the hard-core demonstrators on the streets of Seattle or Genoa.

The European Union recognized this. The Belgian foreign minister stayed an extra night in Durban, holding up an important EU summit in Brussels, in order to try to come up with a final conference declaration. "One of the main reasons we need this conference to be a success" he said at his press conference, "is to provide a reply to the 'anti-globalists.'"

The message Europe wanted to give to the antiglobalization movement is that Western powers are aware of their historical responsibility for creating poverty and inequality and are on top of the situation. Fancy footwork by Europe insured just this outcome. The conference declaration denounces slavery and colonialism and recommends remedies based on a "developmental partnership," such as "promotion of foreign direct investment and market access."

Presto! Western elites are absolved of the guilt they might feel for having built their economies on systematic racial exploitation, and, as if by magic, minor modifications to their present economic policies are offered as remedies. No need for wild calls like reparations, and never mind a fundamental rethinking of contemporary capitalism. And as a bonus, Thabo Mbeki and leaders of other African elites consent to the outcome. Not a bad result for Europe. Seems like Bush missed the boat.

Even greater legitimacy was accorded the UN conference by the presence of thousands of nongovernmental delegates at the parallel NGO Forum. Not only did African presidents endorse the conference outcome but those boisterous civil society types, who have developed a predilection for trying

to sabotage international gatherings of world leaders, had their own meeting just a block away.

Not surprisingly, the NGO declaration contains much more radical language than the official UN document. It condemns the contemporary racist exploitation by states of groups such as the Palestinians, the Dalits (or "untouchables") in India and present-day slaves in Mauritania and elsewhere. And it calls for direct financial reparations to be paid to the victims of racism. It also points to present forms of globalization as an ongoing source of racial inequality.

What impact will the NGO document have on the UN or its member governments? Perhaps the best indication of this is given by the response of the UN High Commissioner for Human Rights, Mary Robinson, to the NGO document. Her first, private reaction was apparently to reject it outright. Later, at a press conference, she said that while it contained some good ideas, she could not recommend it to the main conference. In particular, she felt that its reference to Zionism as racism was unhelpful.

Could it be that the whole multimillion-dollar event, including the NGO Forum, was a charade, designed to give the impression that the more enlightened elements of global civil society have bought into the empty promises of globalization? That certainly was the prevailing view in the third gathering, the unofficial "pavement conference" attended by 20,000 landless and penniless people from around Durban and elsewhere in South Africa.

Unable to afford the $100 entrance fee to the NGO Forum, Durban's poor held their own assembly and march. This was the largest political protest in South Africa since the demise of apartheid, outside of a labor-union general strike. A few US conference delegates strayed wide-eyed into the gatherings. They may not have understood the slogans being chanted by the masses in Zulu: Ulawula ngobubanxa Mbeki, e-South Africa ("Hey Mbeki, you're messing up South Africa"); Wena wawutshelwua ubani ukuthi amanzi ayakhokhelwa? ("Who told you you could sell us water?").

But they couldn't have missed the placards: Landlessness equals racism. You promised us land: you gave us jail. The landless of south africa support the landless of palestine.

Since the demise of apartheid, just 1 percent of South Africa's land has been redistributed to the black majority. White farmers still own 85 percent of the land. Homeless families who recently put up shacks on unused land in Johannesburg to fend off the winter cold were promptly and mercilessly evicted by the ANC municipality.

Residents of Durban's still-segregated black townships also condemned the ANC's cost-recovery policies, which have led to thousands of people having their water and electricity cut off and 100,000 people contracting cholera in the past year. Thousands of workers marched to protest the job losses associated with South Africa's home-grown (but by co-written by the World Bank) structural adjustment program. South African unemployment is estimated to be around 40 percent, and according to the UN Development Program, South Africa recently overtook Brazil to become the most unequal society on the planet.

Across South Africa, as elsewhere in the world, a new social movement is forming to resist the new economic apartheid, which comes in the form of structural adjustment, corporate excess and debt-dependency. This is a global apartheid system felt almost as strongly in the ghettos of Western cities as in the sweatshops of the Third World. The "Durban Social Forum" was founded on the streets outside the World Conference Against Racism to challenge this system.

At Porto Alegre in Brazil in February 2002, the second "World Social Forum" will unpack an alternative vision for the world, in which peoples' basic rights are paramount. Later this month protesters will once again challenge the World Bank's dependency-creating policies in Washington, DC. Then in November, thousands across the world will challenge the proposed new round of WTO talks to be held in the inaccessible state of Qatar. In September 2002 many thousands will return to Johannesburg to challenge the hype at the Rio+10 summit on sustainable development.

Together with the local struggles for jobs, homes, services, education and healthcare, this is the real cutting edge of the fight against racism on a global scale. The World Conference Against Racism never provided a real opportunity for change. We are pleased that the US government revealed its real interests by going home. At least Bush, unlike his predecessor, represents a more honest approach.

By By Dennis Brutus <dvbmay+@pitt.edu> and Ben Cashdan <bcashdan@igc.org



Ben Cashdan is a Johnnesburg-based scholar, filmmmaker and author. His films on Africa and Globalisation will be on tour in the US later this month. For more information check <http://go.to/two.trevors>.

Dennis Brutus is a veteran of the anti-apartheid struggle, a reknowned poet, and now professor of Africana studies at the University of Pittsburgh.

Submitted by brc-news@lists.tao.ca



Al-Ahram Weekly (Cairo)

13-19 September 2001 [Issue No. 551]

Western behaviour in Durban made it all so horribly clear.

All the rich world cares for is wealth and power…

These are bleak times for Africans. Pockets of peace and prosperity perch tenuously like houses on stilts above a turbulent ocean of bloody conflict, economic and social malaise, financial ruin, education and health-care collapse, and apocalyptic epidemics such as HIV/AIDS. Almost everywhere, governments (whether unelected authoritarian regimes, military juntas or democratic administrations) are deeply unpopular.

The gulf between the final official resolutions and the resolutions of the parallel non-governmental organisations and civil society meetings at the World Conference Against Racism, Xenophobia and Related Intolerances (WCAR), exposed the African governments' confounding dilemmas. With little to lose, most African governments have openly embraced economic deregulation, unbridled privatisation, and fiscal discipline. Greedy for more, the West has urged African governments to accelerate towards radical fiscal and monetary reforms. New concepts, so ill-defined as to allow their authors to adapt them to whatever purposes suit (think "good governance"), are introduced and demanded by the West. Many African governments have succumbed. Economic partnership, so much more cost-effective for Western taxpayers, is now the only carrot the West cares to hold out to poor nations. Development aid (especially American) is down to a trickle; "economic partnership" is the new buzz phrase. But the benefits to Africa are highly doubtful.

The pressure put on African governments to accept Western hegemony is vast. Western-funded think-tanks and research institutes across Africa have jumped on the bandwagon, stoutly advocating the worst excesses of neo-liberalism. Even as the Lome Treaty creating the African Union formally came into force at the last Organisation of African Union (OAU) summit in Lusaka in May, 2001, most African governments were making it clear that continental union is meaningless without some form of partnership with the West. The continent's chief recovery programme, the New African Initiative (NAI) for African continental development, is based on this very concept of economic partnership with the EU and the US.

But the other option, hope of a fair amount of redistribution of rich countries' wealth, has little mileage either. The now-defunct OAU was beset by a bedraggled procession of miscalculations that hastened its demise. Chief among these errors was the inability of Africa's post-independence neo-colonial leaders to understand that the hardest gesture for rich countries to make was to put cash on the table. They wrongly assumed that their peoples' manifold socio-economic afflictions would somehow help win over the wealthy Western powers. Let's face it, neither WCAR, nor the fight against poverty, nor even HIV/AIDS, have managed to tilt the scales towards compassion.

Africans have to weight those scales themselves. It was refreshing to note that when the host government is on the side of justice at an international conference, there is no need to batter those protesting against global inequality, as occurred at previous international conferences convened in Seattle, Prague, Davos or Genoa. At WCAR, South Africa acted as a gentle mediator in order to ensure a meaningful outcome to the conference. It played a pivotal role in reaching a compromise between the West and the rest of the world at WCAR over the wording of the final communique. Indeed, WCAR had partially proven that Africans, that African- Americans, that the world's poor, economically marginalised and politically disfranchised can be historical actors.

Sadly, race issues and the legacy of apartheid still beleaguer us. Zimbabwe, South Africa's neighbour, is found just across the Limpopo river. In Zimbabwe, the land-grab by indigenous African peasants of white-owned farms is ripping apart the socio-economic fabric of the country and that once prosperous country is languishing in political chaos. Zimbabwe's turmoil threatens to spill into neighbouring countries like Namibia and South Africa, which share a similar history of European settler colonialism. Trouble may brew.

Zimbabwe's peasants increasingly blame Western economic self-interest for their plight. That self-interest is disgracefully flaunted all across the continent. The stipulations, rules and regulations of the Africa Growth and Opportunity Act (AGOA), signed between the US and 35 African countries, and the similarly-structured EU's Cotonou Agreement with almost 80 African, Caribbean and Pacific (ACP) states with a total population of some 650 million, merely lock Africa into economic subservience to Western consumers. The essence of these agreements is unrestricted access to and control over the continent's farming and mineral resources. Such unequal relationships between the former colonies and their one-time masters hauntingly echo painful memories of past repression. They might as well start calling us wogs again.

Far from being a marriage of convenience, such partnerships between rich and poor inevitably drive the relationship in contradictory directions. We are not so much creating a new, more equitable world as returning to something familiar to Africans from the age of slavery, mercantile capitalism and colonialism. Yet the West still clings precariously to its image as benefactor to the world's poor. But the strain on its fingernails is showing. So much development assistance and humanitarian relief money has been washing through the corridors of power that accusations of the corrupting nature of Western aid can no longer be suppressed.

The latest in the shabby carousel of meetings held between African leaders and America exemplifies great power chicanery. Next week, hundreds of American and African business and political leaders will converge on Philadelphia for the US-Africa Business Summit. With over 30 African leaders in attendance, the summit is expected to be the largest gathering of African heads of state in the history of US-Africa summits. The unprecedented gathering is scheduled to include Nigeria's Olusegun Obasanjo, South Africa's Thabo Mbeki and the Democratic Republic of Congo's Joseph Kabila -- that's assuming they would brave the trip to the US following Tuesday's bombing disasters, or that US officials will have time for the visiting African dignitaries.

The Washington-based Corporate Council for Africa is sponsoring the summit. "The primary goal is to build business and economic relationships between small and large businesses in the US and Africa," explained Stephen Hayes, president of the CCA. "The second goal is to make more public opportunities in Africa for US businesses," he added.

The Bush Administration is publicly as committed to the successful implementation of AGOA as the Clinton Administration. US Secretary of State Colin Powell, Assistant Secretary of State for Africa Walter Kansteiner, Secretary of Commerce Donald Evans, US Trade Representative Robert Zoellick are expected to participate.

The Bush Administration has signaled that it will sponsor a US-Sub-Saharan Africa Trade and Economic Co-Operation Forum. All very well.

Yet a spat over bananas has revealed the worth of such agreements when they conflict with US priorities. Certain Caribbean nations had a special arrangement with Britain to supply bananas to the British market. The US has pressured Britain to switch to bananas imported from plantations owned by US-based multi-national corporations in Central America. The independent farmers of the Caribbean were made the sacrificial lambs and their interests ditched in favour of reaching a compromise with Washington and complying to new World Trade Organisation (WTO) regulations, even though the Caribbean banana growers were signed up to the ACP. Libyan leader Muammar Gaddafi was the unusual saviour, offering a 21 million dollar package of grants and loans, to free the banana growers from WTO and EU control. The islanders are the descendants of African slaves; they have only their roots to turn to for succour in their hour of need.

With WCAR it became painfully clear that the West, led by America, was a dead weight holding back the progress of peoples of colour world-wide. The lineaments of Western intent became plain. Power is about making money; not about giving money away. And power is what interests the West. The correlation between white supremacy and making big money on a global scale was superficially touched upon at WCAR. There, it became clear that power is what interests the US above all: power untrammelled -- above compassion, above ethics, above a fairer world.

And we all know what absolute power does.

By Gamal Nkrumah <gorkehnkrumah@yahoo.com>


Submitted by brc-news@lists.tao.ca

[Absolute power not only "corrupts," but it, without question, also inflicts untold mental and physical damage on Blacks and other people of color. T.Y., Editor]



National Security Advisor Condoleezza Rice gives NBC’s Tim Russert her opinion of the final document drafted by the United Nations racism conference.

September 9, 2001

WASHINGTON, A day after international delegates cobbled together a final declaration at the U.N. racism conference — approving language that recognized the injustice of slavery and the "plight" of the Palestinians — a top U.S. official asserted that the United States was correct in pulling out of the meeting in Durban. Secretary of State Condoleezza Rice, one of the Administration’s most influential black officials, also rejected the idea that African-Americans should be compensated for the past wrongs of slavery.

TOO MUCH effort in Durban went to "issues that were extraneous to the questions that should have been pre-eminent in the conference, and that is how to acknowledge the past, but especially how to move on in the future," Rice said on NBC’s "Meet the Press." She cited slavery in Sudan an example of current practices that should be condemned at the U.N. conference in South Africa that ended Saturday.
Participants "spent far too much time trying to condemn Israel and single it out and I think the United States made the right decision to leave," Rice said. "We hope, as we heard, that the final document is better, but the sad thing is that ... this conference was hijacked and didn’t deal with the agenda that it should have," Rice said. Pressed on the issue of reparation for African-Americans, Rice said, "Given the fact that there is plenty of blame to go around for slavery, plenty of blame to go around among African and Arab states and plenty of blame to go around among Western states, we are better to look forward and not point fingers backward," she said.

The United States and Israel pulled their delegations from the World Conference Against Racism over Arab states’ demand that Israel be criticized for its "racist practices." That language was removed from the final declaration, but a reference to "the plight of the Palestinians" remained.

The conference ended with two pledges: a declaration promising to fight racism, racial discrimination, xenophobia and related intolerance; and a program of action spelling out how they should be fought. The documents are not legally binding.


In the wake of the acrimonious conference, human rights workers and diplomats saw a meeting that left many disappointed but also achieved some limited goals. "To have a global discussion on the problems of racism, racial discrimination, xenophobia and related intolerances is itself a breakthrough," said Wade Henderson, executive director of the U.S.-based Leadership Conference on Civil Rights. "This was a modest and important step in a global journey toward human rights for all." Others felt the meeting wasn’t worth the trouble.

"It hasn’t been a good experience for the world community. It has not been a good experience for the United Nations, and I hope we don’t have to see this happen again," Canadian Foreign Minister John Manley said in London on Tuesday, midway through the conference. Human rights groups complained that few governments were willing to champion the causes of poor minorities or allow themselves to be criticized. "The majority of countries were reluctant to focus attention on their own practices and many took a very cynical posture to the conference," Henderson said. "They had a willingness to accuse others of transgression without a willingness to admit to transgression within their own borders." Conflict over the document led to seemingly tortured compromises in the conference’s final documents.

A group of diplomats trying to come up with a list of victims gave up in the end and simply defined a victim as someone who had been victimized. The stalemate on whether the conference would offer an apology for slavery ended with a strangely phrased compromise that included the word apology, but did not directly give one. The Middle East debate, with Arab states demanding Israel be criticized for its "racist practices" and the European Union refusing to single out any country, ended with a more generic recognition of the "plight" of the Palestinian people. The way the U.N. conference treated other issues angered many rights activists.

Indigenous rights groups, angry about sections of the final declaration they considered "a racist assault upon indigenous peoples," called for a mass walkout. Dalits, know as India’s "untouchable" caste, were furious that a section condemning discrimination against them had been successfully blocked by India. "The government people are deaf," said Anand Kumar Bolimera, a Dalit holding a hunger strike outside the conference center. In the end, the conference produced a declaration and program of action that did not really criticize any one country, but urged governments to take concrete steps to fight discrimination.


The Associated Press and Reuters contributed to this report.


[Just in case the Professor/ National Security Advisor didn’t know it, Blacks in these United States have been trying to "look forward" ever since the Emancipation Proclamation. White Jews in the United States have all kinds of representation and use of manipulation for Israelis who don’t even live in the United States. However, Blacks have folks in government and most who are in key positions work the least for us. Go figure! After Justice Clarence Thomas, are we really surprised? Blacks in high positions support the oppressor when they function and speak against issues designed to meet the needs of Blacks and other people of color. Somebody really knows how to pick ‘em. T.Y., Editor]



Al-Ahram Weekly (Cairo)

September 13 - 19, 2001 [Issue No. 551]

Having admitted historical guilt over the slave trade and colonialism,

the EU still finessed its way around paying reparations…

If the World Conference against Racism (WCAR) in Durban, South Africa, proved anything, it proved that racism is still alive, kicking and rearing its ugly head. Manifested in the deep divide between the North and the South along the traditional "colour bar" of bygone colonial days, the conference agenda pitted rich white nations against the Third World.

Given the unequal match, the outcome of the conference – as spelled out in the final declaration -- confirmed that the former European imperialist powers, as well as the United States, never had any serious intentions of facing their own racism beyond dabbling with semantics and appearances. Ultimately, the US and the European Union (EU) adamantly refused to redress the devastation resulting from old and more recent sins.

Throughout the conference, the Bush administration and the EU maintained their stalwart refusal to denounce Israel as a colonial settler state or to define Zionism as racism. Likewise, they opposed the call to compensate African nations for the slave trade and the plunder of their natural resources under colonialism.

In the wake of the US's and Israel's melodramatic twin walk-out over the definition of Zionism and the ostensible sabotage of the WCAR's agenda by "Arab and Islamic extremist elements", the Europeans immediately threatened to follow suit -- should things get out of hand. Left to fend for themselves against the growing coalition of Third World "saboteurs" basking in the success of the Durban NGO forum, European nations threw their political weight about -- deploying the full arsenal of their lobbying power to limit the damage and censure the "extremists". And censure they did.

Any direct reference to Israel was deleted from the final declaration, which cautiously expressed "concern about the plight of the Palestinian people under foreign occupation". European censorship carried things to the extreme of omitting a designation of the occupying power. Thus the Europeans won the day on the Zionism front. They whitewashed Israel's status, laundered its record and officially de-linked it from references to apartheid and racism.

The EU was equally successful on the vexing issues of slavery and colonialism. Wary about facing class action suits for the devastation of the slave trade and unwilling to pay reparations to African nations, the EU masterminded a text that branded slavery and the slave trade as a "crime against humanity", while maneuvering around the question of direct reparation payments. Instead, the text refers to the blanket "moral obligation" of rich nations, who should provide compensation in the form of debt relief, the opening of markets and poverty eradication drives.

Far from fueling African growth, the formula consists of a recycled version of the pre-packaged Northern "aid" kit, designed to replenish military hardware budgets and deliver piecemeal patch-ups in lieu of real development projects. African observers are also skeptical about European pledges of debt relief. Given the North's record, promises of debt relief will be relegated to the dustbins of history once the dust settles over Durban and its turmoil.

Over and above refurbished "aid" formulas and pledges of debt relief, the more ominous question of reparations had to be settled. Intent on dismissing any lingering and misguided African claims to reparations, the EU was quick to spell out the limitations of Durban. "The declaration and the programme of action are political, not legal documents. These documents cannot impose obligations or liability or a right to compensation on anyone. Nor are they intended to do so," the EU said in a statement.

Notwithstanding a few interspersed expressions of victory lauding the final declaration, African delegations acknowledged that they did not get what they had bargained for. "We have an agreement on a document that is far from satisfactory -- is terribly imperfect -- but that provides a basis to build on," said Amina Mohamed, the Kenyan mediator in the talks. Denied reparations at Durban, African nations failed in their attempt to even slightly redress the imbalance of power and recoup what would have amounted to a fraction of their losses over roughly 400 years of slavery and 200 years of colonialism.

From the end of the 15th century until the 19th century, the slave trade depleted Africa of its human resources. Following the slave trade, the plunder of African and Southern nations expanded and further consolidated under colonialism and neo-colonialism in the 19th and 20th centuries. The legacy of the slave trade and colonialism is a legacy of dire poverty and underdevelopment that continues to plague the South, and the African continent in particular. It is no coincidence that African nations were unable to pull themselves up by the proverbial bootstraps after independence. The Europeans saw to it that the continent remained fragmented, divided and weakened by warfare.

Among the former imperialist powers, France in particular deftly managed to maintain its control over francophone Africa following independence. In 1958, French President Charles de Gaulle moved to establish the Franco-African Community -- a French version of the Commonwealth, with a common defence programme, shared diplomacy and a common currency, tying African economies to the French franc.

Submitted to a referendum, De Gaulle's initiative was endorsed by a number of moderate francophone leaders, but rejected by more radical ones like Guinea's Sekou Toure, and Mali's Modibo Keita, who regarded the Community as thinly-veiled colonial rule.

Although short-lived -- it formally fizzled out in 1961 -- the Community provided France with a convenient springboard into African affairs. It also served to create division within African ranks, in particular between so-called moderate and radical nations, pitting African nationalists -- those who shared Kwame Nkrumah's pan-African vision -- against supporters of the West. On the route to "Balkanisation" and division, francophone Africa only needed a slight push to fall into the French (and Western) orbit. The US provided the fatal impetus in 1966, by engineering and financing a coup in Ghana to topple Nkrumah and put an end to any militant pan-African ventures. In 1968, it was Modibo Keita's turn to go. A socialist and an ally of the Soviet Union, Mali's leader threatened to divert other African countries from the Western camp.

Besides supporting US efforts to crush pan-Africanism and topple socialist regimes, France supported African dictatorships over progressive opposition movements continent-wide. Among its most notorious allies in the '60s and '70s was South Africa, which France continued to supply with arms even after the UN-initiated universal boycott of the apartheid regime.

Acting as destabilising agents since the early days of African independence, France -- along with other European countries -- actively contributed to the continent's division and continued to control the economies of their former colonies. Paying reparations for slavery and colonialism would mean reversing the trend and relinquishing control. Given the stakes, it is not surprising that European nations finessed their way around the issue of reparations at Durban.

By Faiza Rady


Submitted by brc-news@lists.tao.ca

BRC-NEWS: Black Radical Congress - General News Articles/Reports




Black Electorate

August 27, 2001

Although they do so in different forms, the White-led Liberal, Conservative and Progressive Movements are all in denial, to varying degrees, on the issues of reparations, racism and slavery. That Blacks stand all alone on the reparations issue is not hard to tell by the lack of support that leaders of the reparations movement have received from those who are supposedly sympathetic to them and their causes. As long as the subject is fighting corporate power or civil rights, Blacks have always found themselves on the receiving end of resources, publicity and support from Progressives and Liberals. But the general silence from Progressives and Liberals that exists as the rallying cry in Black America continues to grow for reparations is striking.

Ted Glick, in an op-ed for The Black World Today accurately picked up on this peculiarity when he wrote of the lack of a broad-based coalition of traditional allies when the cause is reparations for slavery. He spoke of the lack of White progressive support for reparations:

"Many older, white labor activists, for example, believe that the correct approach must be one of working for unity among workers of all nationalities by emphasizing the fight against racism on the job and in the community, within the context of a multi-racial working class and multi-racial organizations. This is fine and commendable as far as it goes. But some of these same activists have problems with all-African American, all-Latino or other constituency-based groups organized around the special oppression felt by those particular groups."

"To me, opposition to these forms of organization is a form of racism. Get over it! Stop trying to control and keep on top of everything! The reality of our society, including the reality of life for most workers, is one of both interrelationship and separation when it comes to our variety of cultures and nationalities. We need organizational forms and ways of interacting with each other that allow for both to happen, as desired and as is possible."

"To the extent that white progressives are serious in practical ways about the struggle against racism, to that extent will people of color be more open to building closer and stronger personal and organizational ties. There will be a basis for trust. But we are still very much "on the road" in this essential journey, sisters and brothers. We have not yet arrived at our goal of a non-racist progressive movement, much less a non-racist society. Until a good chunk of our organizations are genuinely multi-racial at the base and in the leadership; until the issue of racism is something we discuss easily and naturally, without uptightness and defensiveness; until we begin to see more and more examples out in the broader society where whites and people of color join together in common cause around common issues AND incorporate pro-equality demands within those common struggles-only then can we think that we are finally getting somewhere."

Mr. Glick is absolutely right. The argument that Blacks who support reparations are tearing the country apart is ridiculous. What a short memory some have. Was it that long ago that many of these same reparations advocates who are accused of "balkanizing" America today were the same ones getting hosed, beaten, biten by dogs and verbally abused by Whites, simply because they wanted to eat and use the same bathrooms as their Caucasian peers?

There has never been a group of people in America more open to interracial coalitions than Blacks. Why now, we wonder is a Black-led coalition seeking reparations such a problem for Whites to stomach? Do "sympathetic" Whites have a problem following Blacks in coalitions? Do "benevolent" Whites have a problem supporting a cause whose immediate short-term benefits are largely aimed at Blacks?

Ideologically, White progressives would seem to be the most natural of allies for the reparations cause but one would think that White liberals would not be that far behind. However, that simply is not the case. Today there is not even a peep to be heard from White liberals on the issue of reparations. They have ignored and avoided it, with cover for such being provided by the Black political establishment. At the most, White Liberal politicians wink and nod their head at Black leaders, like Rep. John Conyers, who are pushing for a congressional study on the issue. White liberals who are Democrats don't want to touch the issue with a ten-foot pole, comfortably realizing, for the time being, that Blacks will still vote for them anyway - whether they speak publicly about reparations or not.

Conservatives, White and Black, are actually the least disingenuous about their position on reparations. But by far, they are the most virulent in their opposition. We wrote about the fallacious reasoning supporting their position on reparations, their general stubbornness and we hinted at the consequences of such in our E-Letter To Thomas Sowell regarding reparations.

Although the progressive and liberal lack of support for reparations may be the most disappointing for Black reparations advocates, it is the Conservative position on reparations and the seemingly intolerant position on issues of race - most notably, the impact and legacy of slavery on Blacks and the reality of racial discrimination - that may hold the worst consequences for race relations in this country.

We recognized this race-averse zealotry in the manner in which some conservatives have castigated President Bush for his administration's position in the Adarand case. If conservatives are successful in pulling the President of the United States away from a public recognition that racial discrimination exists and that its effects require a redress, then there is no hope that a legitimate public discussion on race can occur, in a manner where Blacks and Whites are free to discuss any steps that maybe taken toward solving this country's greatest problem.

One Republican who does not agree with the present demands of the reparations movement but who does recognize that slavery and racial discrimination have caused damage among Blacks and the entire country that needs to be addressed, politically, is supply-side economist Jude Wanniski, President of Polyconomics Inc. He expressed this opinion to us in response to what we wrote to Thomas Sowell:

"Of course, I agree with you that (Sowell's) "ain't gonna happen" argument is full of holes, but I still believe (the reparations movement) is misdirected when it appears the goal is cash money. Reparation means "repair." And cash money is as useless to black Americans as the tax rebates are to lifting the economy out of its deflationary morass. It is in the self-interest of all white Americans to see all black Americans achieve a comparable standard of living. How to go about that kind of repair should be front and center on our domestic agenda."

"I would ask black leaders, like Minister Farrakhan, for a list of things they would like to see done to effect "repair," without involving cash. When I asked Nation Of Islam Chief of Staff, Brother Leonard Farrakhan Muhammad, what he would put at the top of his list, he said he would have a full-scale education program funded for the prison system, with white prisoners allowed into the project too. It would be presumptuous for me, a white guy, to tell black men what they need. They know what they need. When we asked Kweisi Mfume, (when he attended) our conference what he wanted most for his people, he said, "Access to capital and credit." You know I've always said that the poorest people would benefit the most from a gold standard and elimination of the capital gains tax. Minister Farrakhan supports both, for the right reasons."

What would it take for conservatives, to gravitate toward Mr. Wanniski's position? Is such a scenario very likely? Would liberals and progressives be willing to follow Mr. Wanniski's lead and seek the advice of Nation of Islam leader Minister Louis Farrakhan on the issue of reparations? Would Blacks be willing to accept a non-cash-based form of reparations?

All of these questions begin to get under the surface of the current superficial level of discussion about reparations, which has some Blacks demanding a hearing and only a cash remedy on one end with all of the leading members of the White political community - conservative, liberal, and progressive - playing down or denying that the issue warrants attention, on the other end.

While the proposed reparations remedy may lean too heavily on the side of money, that is a very weak excuse for Whites to ignore the root of the argument of Black reparations advocates, that something tangible and material must be done, politically, in response to slavery and racial discrimination.

If recognition of what slavery caused is not publicly demonstrated by White conservatives, liberals, and progressives and the need for "repair" not politically sought, we have little hope that anything short of violence will bring all parties together in one room to have a frank discussion aimed at solving the problems of America's racial divide.

By Cedric Muhammad <editor@blackelectorate.com>


Black Electorate Communications

Submitted by brc-reparations@yahoogroups.com

BRC-REPARATIONS: Black Radical Congress - Reparations Caucus

Questions/Problems: send email to <brc-reparations-owner@egroups.com>

[This White Man has no problems giving our Black dollars to White "Jews" to the tune of a minimum of $10 billion every single year. But to give Descendants of Slaves Reparations (for over 400 years of enslavement, lynchings, racism, discrimination, and prejudice) in the form of FREEDOM to leave this captivity and money to establish our own communities just doesn’t seem fair and "the right thing to do" to White Folks who grew fat off the backs of Black Slaves out of Africa. And this White Man can’t understand why he is plagued with death and destruction while his people are running scared from falsely believing that their lily-whiteness made them GOD’s gift to the World. A blind man and a rock can see the many oppressive ways that this country continuously afflicts Blacks and other minorities (especially the Native Americans) in this land and keeps us miserable and in great despair. Sooner or later, something will cause them to come around to our way of thinking. Hey, if Pharaoh could be convinced, so can this White Opressor. T.Y., Editor]



The Washington Times

A U.S. church delegation at the U.N. conference against racism yesterday said financial reparations are due for slavery and colonialism, and Israel should withdraw from occupied Palestinian territory.

"It is urgent for us and our churches to acknowledge our complicity with and participation in the perpetuation of racism, slavery and colonialism," said the statement, read at the Durban, South Africa, gathering by Nobel Laureate and Anglican Archbishop Desmond Tutu.

"We further call upon our churches to address the issue of reparations as a way of redressing the wrongs done," the statement said, adding that the payments "are due the victims of racism, past and present."

The 10-point statement was backed by the National Council of Churches (NCC) and delegates from the United Methodist Church, the Presbyterian Church (USA), the United Church of Christ and the Christian Church (Disciples of Christ).

"This is absurd. There is no blanket complicity by the churches in slavery or colonialism," said James Nuechterlein, a former professor of American studies at Lutheran-founded Valparaiso University in Indiana and editor of the journal First Things.

"The record was mixed, but most of the criticism came from Christian thinkers," he said. "The churches didn't make any money from slavery and colonialism. How could you possibly decide who is a victim today?"

The "ecumenical caucus" that issued the statement was one of many nongovernmental groups holding gatherings parallel to the governmental proceedings of the summit.

The United States withdrew from the conference Monday in protest against a draft resolution that accused Israel of "racist priorities" against Palestinians.

Though the delegation's statement lacked detail, it suggested that predominantly white churches of the West should make reparations to minorities.

It also called for "the end of Israeli colonialist occupation in the occupied Palestinian territories" and "establishment of a sovereign Palestinian state."

The caucus wants all forms of slavery declared "crimes against humanity," but did not say whether international courts should adjudicate such charges.

The statement decried mistreatment of women in caste systems, of immigrants, and indigenous minority groups.

"The definition of reparations is being debated, but fundamentally, this is about setting things right," said NCC Racial Justice Director Sammy Toineeta, a Lakota Indian.

Bishop Marshall H. Strickland I, secretary of the African Methodist Episcopal Zion Church, agreed that reparations would be complex and possibly hurtful, but supports the concept.

"It should not be a windfall, welfare program," he said from his Baltimore home.

Before going to Durban, the NCC and its charity arm, Church World Service, pledged a "commitment to studying reparations for persons of African descent, indigenous persons and other vulnerable groups, for past misconduct and for contemporary effects of continuing harm."

Many of the U.S. liberal mainline Protestant denominations have raised the topic at assemblies, but none

has taken a stand or proposed a mechanism for reparations.

Leaders in eight historic U.S. black denominations support the idea.

Church repentance for racism had swept through many denominations in the 1990s, including an assembly vote by the Southern Baptist Convention and a summit of black and white Pentecostal denominations.

By Larry Witham

The Washington Times

[Anyone who wishes to know who the victims today are of the Slave Trade, read the book, How the Other Half Lives, or any documentation on U.S. Slavery or Racism in the United States and then visit any ghetto in any one of the nation’s major cities or impoverished sections of the rural South - make your first stop the Mississippi Delta. Although my affinity belief, hope, trust, and faith lies in the Most High GOD of Abraham and Moses, I welcome every voice that speaks out for JUSTICE for Reparations for Descendants of Slaves. T.Y., Editor]


In the Treaty of Tordesillas (1494) the Catholic Church divided all the slaves and gold in the world between Spain and Portugal. For centuries American and European religious institutions have financially profited from slavery, colonialism, and neo-colonialism--including the forced assimilation of millions of African-Americans. These institutions should make substantial contributions to Reparations and call upon the U.N. to quickly establish a forum for African-Americans to analyze long-term oppression and the exact forms Reparations and Restoration should take.

Minister Malik Al-Arkam


Submitted by alarkam@webtv.net (AlArkam@webtv.net)

And brc-reparations@yahoogroups.com

BRC-REPARATIONS: Black Radical Congress - Reparations Caucus




Excerpt on Slavery

"We acknowledge that slavery and the slave trade, including the trans-Atlantic slave trade, were appalling tragedies in the history of humanity not only because of their abhorrent barbarism but also in terms of their magnitude, organized nature and especially their negation of the essence of the victims and further acknowledge that slavery and the slave trade are a crime against humanity and should always have been so, especially the trans-Atlantic slave trade, and are among the major sources and manifestations of racism, racial discrimination (emphasis by Jahahara), xenophobia and related intolerance, and that Africans and people of African descent, Asians and people of Asian descent and Indigenous peoples were victims of these acts and continue to be victims of their consequences..."

Regarding Remedies and Program of Action

"The World Conference acknowledges and profoundly regrets the massive human sufferings and the tragic plight of millions of men, women and children caused by slavery, slave trade, trans-Atlantic slave trade, apartheid, colonialism and genocide and calls upon the states concerned to honor the memory of the victims of past tragedies and affirms that wherever and whenever these occurred they must be condemned and their reoccurrence prevented.

The World Conference regrets that these practices and structures, political, socioeconomic and cultural, have led to racism, racial discrimination, xenophobia and related intolerance.

The World Conference recognized that these historical injustices have undeniably contributed to poverty, underdevelopment, marginalization, social exclusion, economic disparities, instability and insecurity that affect many people in different parts of the world, in particular in developing countries.

The World Conference recognizes the need to develop programs for the social and economic development of these societies and the Diaspora within the framework of a new partnership based on the spirit of solidarity and mutual respect in the following areas: debt relief, poverty eradication, building or strengthening democratic institutions, promotion of foreign direct investments, market access..."

(Adopted in Durban, South Afrika, 8 September 2001)


Submitted by BRC-Reparations@yahoogroups.com

BRC-REPARATIONS: Black Radical Congress - Reparations Caucus



The Reparations Movement’s goals are as follows:

- Obtain Reparations from all countries that prospered from Black Slave Labor

- Schedule Conferences, Marches, and Protests until the White Society apologizes and

compensates Descendants of the Slave Trade

- Speak at the United Nations on Reparations for Survivors of the Slave Trade in order

to gain International Support from all or most countries

- Demonstrate in front of the UN in Geneva for World Attention

- Establish an International Fund for Descendants of Slaves

- Target Companies that existed during the days of Slavery for Reparations, and if they

do not comply, then list them as "Unworthy" for Black patronage

- Seek support for Reparations from Companies that prosper off of Black Clients

- Seek Celebrity support for Reparations

- Involve the Media

- Make "Reparations" the buzz word for this new century

- Etc., etc., and by "any means necessary" within the Law



Announces Historical Nation-Wide Petition Campaign

The Reparations - Yes International Petition

Drive Web Site is Up and Running!

The International Reparations Petition

located online at:


has reopened!

Please pass the word


Remember the goal is

No Less Than

150 Thousand signatures per state!

Please visit www.unity4theworld.com and sign the petition Today!

Remember we are trying to secure 50 Thousand signatures from each state and foreign country, every signature counts, including yours!


Ms. Clara Peoples


Ms. Lisa Clay





Dr. Saharra Bledsoe

202 783-3705









Ahna Tafari



September 14, 2001

For those of us who have lived under the terror of the KKK, Jim Crow, and all other unspeakable means of racism, in this country, we understand that Terrorism is Not by any means new to us! However, as we now begin to bear witness to this new wave of horror that has befallen our country we must pray for our leaders. Because, we better than anyone else, know for a fact, that only through God's amazing grace and long arm of limitless mercy, can we sustain the grief, hurt, and pain and thereby gain true victory over any enemy rather seen or unseen, known or unknown. Then, we cannot afford to lose focus on the mission at hand!

Many Black Americans died believing that we would pick up their cross and seek fulfillment of that promise of the mule and 40 acres. Their lives were and are no less of a value than those who have perished in this latest American tragedy.

Reparations is an inherit debt that must be paid! Therefore, as we pray for our nation and the world to overcome these dark days, may we also be thankful, for the life God has given, and the blessing he will send and bestow upon us, that are yet to come, if we simply hold steadfast to his unchanging hand.

By Dr. Saharra Bledsoe





RE: Reparations

Jesse Jackson and some other black leaders are mounting their latest demands for reparations for American slavery. Never mind that not a single slave or slave owner is alive today; nor is a single son or daughter of a slave or slave owner alive today.

Before one cent is paid to anyone in reparations for slavery, I want to know how the descendants of Irish and other Europeans, who fought and died to free the slaves in the Civil War, will be compensated. Slavery reparations are utter nonsense, and those politicians who support such nonsense are nothing more than panderers and patronizers.

The latest demand for reparations began when Jewish victims of the Holocaust demanded and received reparations for slave labor, stolen property and specific identifiable atrocities that required compensation. These are actual living victims who identified specific crimes and debts, and have received a small part of what they are lawfully entitled to. There is no similarity in law or justice between these reparations and those that are now demanded by some black leaders for American slavery.

By Michael J. Gorman



RE: Reparations, A response to Michael J. Gorman

Mr. Michael J. Gorman's (Sept. 9, letter) understanding of slavery is as faulty as his facts and his logic. When he states that not a single son or daughter of a slave is alive today what is his data? My mother and her two siblings, who are very much alive today, are the daughters and son of an ex-slave. They are the children of Roderick Steele, of Port Wentworth, Georgia, in Chatham County. Secondly, the Irish, other Europeans, and African Americans died fighting for their country, as soldiers have done throughout history without additional compensation. I seemed to remember that African Americans as well as Africans from the European colonies fought in two major wars to free Europeans.

In addition to restitution being paid by the Federal Republic of Germany, to individuals, reparations were paid by the Federal Republic of Germany to the State of Israel and the Jewish People. Crimes committed by the Nazi was not only directed at individuals, but at the Jewish community in general. If not a single Nazi was alive, should that effect the victims claim?

The demands for reparation has been going on since the end of the Civil War. African American Slaves also performed slave labor, and had property stolen, that property that comes from ones own efforts. In addition to property stolen, their children were stolen and sold. Very specific atrocities that were directed against slaves are a matter of record. What Mr. Gorman has also overlooked is that victims of the Holocaust, once compensated are able to pass those assets on to their heirs. Slaves’ estates are a part of that stolen property.

By Janet Foster <jhfoster@bellatlantic.net>

Submitted by gpj@ix.netcom.com (George P jenkins Jr)

[Gorman is right, there is no similarity in law or justice between reparations for White "Jews" and those that are now demanded by some black leaders for American slavery. The White "Jews" suffered for approximately thirteen years and were killed in gas chambers and ovens. Descendants of Slaves suffered in a Holocaust - the worst enslavement recorded in history - that maimed and had some committing suicide and wishing for death. Also, by some estimates, more than 100 million Black Slaves died at the hands of Slavers and Slave Masters. Slaves watched their children endure this heinous bondage and suffering. And this cruel, barbaric captivity has lasted for over 400 years AND NO JUSTICE HAS BEEN SERVED FOR DESCENDANTS OF SLAVES - NOT EVEN FREEDOM FROM THE LANDS TO WHERE BLACKS WERE TAKEN IN SHACKLES. The White "Jews" always meet their objectives even at the expense of Black tax payers whose money also went towards the Commission that Clinton set up to help them get their monies out of Germany and Swiss banks. So, again, Gorman is right, there is absolutely no similarity in the two cases - none whatsoever. T.Y., Editor]




September 27, 2001

Michael Elliott's opinion piece regarding the United Nations World Conference Against Racism, in the, September17, 2001 issue, unfortunately focuses on one aspect of what was an enriching and enlightening conference. Therefore his article does a disservice to the readers who were not able to participate as well as the over 18,000 conference participants. Because of his lack of journalistic integrity I have decided to write to Time magazine for the first time since I became a reader 24 years ago.

Michael Elliott claims that few conference participants came to Durban "in a spirit of generosity, reconciliation and compromise." Not only is this offensive to the thousands of conference participants who traveled great distances to go to Durban, this is offensive to some participants whose very presence and testimony to the oppression they faced placed themselves or their family members at risk. Did Michael Elliott attend the "Voices of Victims" seminars? Was Michael Elliott like many of the conference participants from non governmental organizations (NGO) who were housed fifty or more miles away and had to awake at 5:30 am in order to take a 7:00 am bus to arrive in time for the conference that began at 8:00 am. Participants, who worked diligently on aspects of the NGO document, listened to testimony, participated in workshops and later boarded the bus either at 6 pm or at 11:00 p.m. to go home only to start the day again. Participants from various countries such as India, Nigeria, South Africa, Tibet, Mali, Korsorvo, Canada, Mozambique, Senegal and the US all worked together to learn and form a coherent document that would analyze the several themes of the NGO forum in seven days. How could there not be compromise, how could there not be a spirit of humanity and desire to end racism, xenophobia and discrimination based on gender, caste, class, religion or sexual orientation?

Michael Elliott claims that the conference was " intellectually bankrupt". Interesting- we know nothing about Mr. Elliott's academic background for him to make such a charge. I graduated from a highly rated medical school and law school. I am currently pursuing a postdoctoral degree in public health at a top California graduate school. I was happy to collaborate with conference participants who were from academia. Most of the participants in the delegation that I was in, Physical and Mental Health- were physicians, attorneys and practicing psychologists. I was also happy to collaborate with participants who did not have the opportunity to acquire academic credentials yet were well versed in combating racism and discrimination. Further, Mr. Elliott, some of the premier professionals either participated as speakers or observers. I noticed the distinguished constitutional law professor from Harvard, Charles Ogletree, activist, writer and professor, Angela Davis, Winnie Mandela, author, Farai Chideya, to name a few people that attended this "intellectually bankrupt "conference. Again, Mr. Elliott, what conference did you attend?

Mr. Elliott focuses his opinion piece on what he thinks will sell- the language concerning Israel and Israel's foreign and domestic policies. Yes, there was derogatory language by some conference participants. There were also rabbis protesting Israel's policies with signboards that stated Zionism is wrong. There is a strong paragraph in the NGO document denouncing anti-Semitism. This was not reported. Nor was it reported that this was one part of an extensive debate on racism and discrimination- Mr. Elliott does not mention the Dalit's crusade to get the caste system labeled as racism- despite the protests of India, nor does he mention the fight of the indigenous people, the Romas who valiantly stated their points of views. Nor does Mr. Elliott mention the triumphs of Caucuses like the Health Caucus who documented the global effects of racism and discrimination on physical and mental health. Not mentioned is the work of the Environmental racism caucus or the work of the Disability caucus in documenting the discriminatory immigration policies of some countries that that affects the disabled.

It was unfortunate, but not unexpected that the United States decided to send a low profile delegation to the UN and then withdraw like a petulant child because the world would not bend to its point of view on one aspect of the conference. Mary Robinson, the UN High Commissioner for Human Rights stated participants "have come from all corners of the globe to Durban because each of you knows that, within your own communities and countries, problems of racism, racial discrimination, xenophobia and related intolerance persist. And you know that progress won't be made in combating these global evils unless all parts of society rise to the challenge."

The United States had a chance to take the lead in this global fight against discrimination and racism but in my opinion made a diplomatic mistake. I am proud of the work that was accomplished in Durban. Hopefully this work can serve as a platform on which global programs to address racism and discrimination can build from. I am proud that I was an active participant. After reading your opinion piece, Mr. Elliot, I have to question were you there at the conference?

William D. King, M.D., J.D.

4472 Don Milagro Drive

Los Angeles, Ca (323) 293 2438

Submitted by randall@udayton.edu

And WCAR-Updates@yahoogroups.com


There has been a lot of Naysayers about the World Conference Against Racism and attempts by many people to distance themselves from the conference. This letter by Dr. King I believe eloquently states the work of WCAR.

Vernellia R. Randall

Professor of Law

Phone: (937) 229-3378

Race, Racism and the Law


Submitted by Vernellia R Randall/LAW/FacStaff/UDayton on 09/27/2001





The Reparations Mobilization Coalition Conference Planning Meetings will be every Wednesday evening at 6:30pm at the Brecht Forum -


The Brecht Forum

122 W. 27th Street, 10th Floor

New York City

TIME: 6:30 P.M.

CONTACT: ebontek@earthlink.net

The Reparations Mobilization Coalition looks forward to seeing all of you at our Reparations Education + Mobilization Conference on Friday November 2 - 4 at the City College of New York in Harlem, New York.

We are making great progress in our plans to have a large turnout for our Nov 2-4 conference at City College. However, if you add your energies, we will have even more of a guarantee for a big successful launching of the necessary education and mobilization efforts to make Black Reparations a concrete reality.

These are WORKING meetings to help get people out to the conference and to help organize the vendors, volunteers and -especially- to raise the much needed monies for the overall success of the conference (travel expenses, publicity, phone/fax bills, etc.).

Much work is to be done in preparing the initiation of a grassroots national and international Reparations Mobilization Campaign. With your support and ideas at this conference, we can succeed in advancing the struggle for Black Liberation and compensation for past and present crimes against African Humanity.

Don't forget to visit our website: <www.murchisoncenter.org/reparations> for updates and registration.

We have a new email correspondence address: reparationsnow@tbwt.com. Please use this for ALL conference related materials and inquiries.

In addition, if you have important information and Reparations announcements, you can post at our site. We also will need the updated Call and Conference Agenda translated into Portuguese, French and Spanish for the site. So, if you know any of the respective languages, please contact us at this email address: (ebontek@earthlink.net).

In Struggle,

Sam E. Anderson


The Reparations Mobilization Coalition





Muhammad Mosque of Islam in Boston, Massachusetts invites you to attend weekly meetings each Sunday at the Dillaway located at:

183 Roxbury Street

Roxbury, Massachusetts

(Next to the Timilty School, in Roxbury)

Meetings start at 2:00 PM, but on the last Sunday of the month we start at 1:00 PM.

For more information and to schedule free lectures on Reparations at your church, school, business or organization, feel welcome to telephone Minister Malik Al-Arkam at (617) 770-2017.



Announces Historical Nation-Wide Petition Campaign

The Reparations - Yes International Petition

Drive Web Site is Up and Running!

Please visit www.unity4theworld.com and sign the petition Today!

Remember we are trying to secure 50 Thousand signatures from each state and foreign country, every signature counts, including yours!


Ms. Clara Peoples


Ms. Lisa Clay





Dr. Saharra Bledsoe

202 783-3705








October 19/20, 2001



Place: Brown University


J. Everet Green


37 Old Oregon Road

Cortlandt Manor

New York, New York 10567


November 2 - 4, 2001



PLACE: The City College of New York

138th Street & Convent Avenue

Harlem, New York


Lord Anthony Gifford (London)

Honorable Dudley Thompson (Jamaica)

Amiri Baraka

Charles Barron

Prof. Richard F. America

Dr. Maulana Karenga

Silis Muhammad

Prof. C J Munford

Attny. Gilda Sherrod-Ali (NCOBRA)

Safiya Bukhari

Brenda Stokely

Ashaki Binta (Black Workers for Justice)

Attny. Roger Wareham (December 12th Movement)

Elombe Brath

Hector Bermudez (AfroPuerto Rico Movement)

Pam Africa (MOVE)

Prof. Ray Winbush (Race Relations Inst-Fisk University)

and other Reparations Fighters

For registration and program details, please visit our website: <www.murchisoncenter.org/reparations>

In the Struggle,

Sam E. Anderson

The Reparations Mobilization Coalition

CONTACT: ebontek@earthlink.net


November 28 – December 2, 2001


Convenes in Atlanta November 28 – December 2, 2001 at the Georgia International Convention Center.

"A set of goals and objectives have been outlined," he said. "We hope to identify, analyze and discuss the critical crises and issues facing Black people. We also hope to provide some sort of leadership and skill development training to enhance our collective capacity to engage the struggle for liberation."

"Our agenda also includes discussion of meaningful definitions of liberation and reconstruction, intensifying the global movement for reparations and working towards the convening of an International Black Arts and Cultural Festival,"

For more information, call 1-866-ATL-SOBW or visit www.TBWT.com



The book listing on Reparations and Black History can be found in REPNOW Newsletters 1 - 5.



Producers & Disseminators of the Literature that is Finally Freeing Afrikan People:

"Those at Home and those abroad!"



Debating the Wages of Slavery

August 27, 2001

Students at the University of North Carolina participate in a rally in protest of an advertisement against slavery reparations that appeared in the campus newspaper, The Daily Tar Heel

Paying African-Americans reparations is an idea as old as the republic. So why has it suddenly become the hottest civil-rights issue of the day? The anatomy of a crusade

How many of you have heard of reparations?" activist-attorney Adjoa A. Aiyetoro asks a crowd of 200 African-Americans gathered at Agape Missionary Baptist Church in Chicago on a recent Saturday afternoon. About 10 hands go up. Undeterred, she explains the concept: in recent years, Holocaust victims, World War II-era Japanese-Americans and Aboriginal groups in Australia and New Zealand have all been successful in extracting compensation from governments and corporations for the legal and moral wrongs committed against them. Are the descendants of America’s slaves any less deserving of restitution? The crowd erupts with shouts of approval and applause.

"IN ORDER TO SOLVE A PROBLEM, you’ve got to admit you’ve got a problem," says Aiyetoro, who for the past 14 years as cofounder and legal consultant for the National Coalition of Blacks for Reparations in America (N’COBRA) has been on a grass-roots campaign to make America do just that. "We need you to embrace our strategy."

From churches to campuses, corporate boardrooms to congressional offices, Americans are beginning to pay attention to Aiyetoro and others like her who think this country owes not only an apology, but money, for the damage done by its "peculiar institution." "It’s moved from margin to mainstream," says the Rev. Jesse Jackson, a relatively recent convert to the cause. At a United Nations conference on racism in Durban, South Africa, next week, several delegations plan to push a resolution that would declare the transatlantic slave trade a crime against humanity. "This is what Malcolm X was talking about in the 1960s, taking our plight before the world," says Conrad Worrill of Chicago’s National Black United Front.

At Brown and Yale, Ivy Leaguers are beginning to question whether their schools’ endowments were built on the backs of slaves; the answer could spark the biggest wave of protests to hit campuses since the South Africa divestiture demonstrations a generation ago. In California, a new law requires all insurers doing business in the state to disclose whether they sold any slave- owner policies prior to emancipation; this followed a probe triggering an embarrassing public admission by Aetna last year that it had insured slaves like property. And on Capitol Hill, renewed interest in a decade-old bill to study the impact of slavery might finally propel it onto the floor.


For all the talk, however, advocates are divided over whether this momentum is likely to translate into real results. Other supporters of black causes see the debate as a diversion from more pressing problems. And opponents have been emboldened, arguing that the past 40 years of social policy have made ample amends for the wages of slavery. Even some sympathetic to the cause fumble over the logistics of settling 136-year-old scores. Should restitution be paid in dollars, or apologetic words? Who pays? And who gets paid?

As with most civil-rights issues, the answers may ultimately come in the courts. The backbone of any legal challenge is the notion that government and business received "unjust enrichment" from slavery, an idea outlined in Randall Robinson’s book "The Debt: What America Owes to Blacks," which has become a sort of primer for the reparations movement. Robinson is putting his theory into action: along with lawyer Johnnie Cochran and Harvard Law professor Charles Ogletree, he is preparing a reparations suit to be filed next spring. "I think the single most important part of the case is the educational part, because it’s a story that’s never been told," says Alexander Pires, a member of the Ogletree group who successfully argued a landmark discrimination suit by black farmers against the Agriculture Department that led to a $300 million settlement in 1999. "The second part of it—what is a fair remedy—is a different issue."

Slavery's Toll

Once a fringe cause, the push to pay reparations for slavery has gained strength around the country

Determining "fair remedy" will require quantifying just how much the government and companies made from slave labor. "Economists have gone back and looked at what percentage of U.S. wealth was represented by slaves in 1850. Estimates vary, but something in the range of 10 to 20 percent of the entire U.S. wealth was human chattel," says Nashville lawyer Kevin Outterson, a white Northwestern Law School graduate who became interested in the subject after his firm got involved in some of the Holocaust cases. Sifting through state and federal tax records, Outterson speculates, could yield evidence of how much money the government collected from slave taxes. By focusing on issues such as taxation, lawyers may also be able to get around the issue of sovereign immunity, which has derailed past efforts to sue the government over slavery.


The idea of recompense for African-Americans is nearly as old as the republic itself. After the Revolutionary War, which saw slaves recruited to fight alongside white soldiers, the Marquis de Lafayette suggested allocating land in central Pennsylvania where blacks could live freely. Gen. George Washington mused about it, but the idea went nowhere. Nearly a century later, Gen. William Sherman issued his order to give newly freed slaves 40 acres and a mule, but President Andrew Johnson vetoed the measure. Efforts to address the legacy of slavery would continue through various black-nationalist groups on into the 1980s.

Then, in 1987, Congress voted to award $1.2 billion in reparations to Japanese-Americans interned in concentration camps during World War II. Black activists took notice. "The Japanese-American bill let us know that it’s possible," says Aiyetoro, who was a Washington, D.C., attorney involved in prison-rights issues for the ACLU when she founded N’COBRA that same year. "It gave us a sense that it is not just a rhetorical issue." At about the same time, a Detroit activist named Ray Jenkins, nicknamed "Reparations Ray" for his passion on the subject, began pestering Rep. John Conyers Jr. about his idea for an official reparations forum. In 1989 the Michigan Democrat introduced legislation calling for the federal government to create a commission to study slavery’s effects. Now N’COBRA had a vehicle that mainstream blacks and some whites could embrace. The NAACP endorsed the call in 1991, followed by the National Bar Association and black fraternities and sororities. More than a decade later, nearly a dozen city councils, including those in Chicago, Los Angeles, Dallas and Atlanta, have passed resolutions endorsing the bill.

Emotions surrounding the issue run high. David Horowitz, the conservative provocateur, bought a series of controversial ads in campus newspapers earlier this year ("Ten reasons why reparations for slavery is a bad idea—and racist too"); it provoked a raucous free-speech-vs.-tolerance brouhaha.
"He’s just using this as a vehicle for hate," said Dipti Barot, a student at the University of California, Berkeley, who attended a tense Q&A with Horowitz last week. "I reflect what a majority of the American public thinks in watching this spectacle," counters Horowitz, who stormed off the stage.

In some ways, Horowitz has been one of the reparations’ advocates best assets, stirring passions wherever he goes. But they know translating the passion into action is still a complicated uphill task. For her part, Aiyetoro shies from discussing what form reparations should take. "I can’t tell you a dollar figure," she says. Monetary damages aren’t the entire point either. "You cannot look at any aspect of the lives of African-Americans and not see the injury. People say, ‘Look at Oprah Winfrey.’ But we’re not talking about the exceptions, we’re talking about the masses." The masses may still not be convinced, but they’re starting to listen.

With Sarah Downey in Chicago and Gretel C. Kovach in New York

By Vern E. Smith



The Yale Daily News

September 10, 2001

Local actions emulating those in New Haven and Yale are well

worth launching, as such will provide momentum for national

and global actions…

New Haven residents gathered at the Center Church on the Green Friday night to commemorate the 170th anniversary of attempts to form a black college and to draw continued attention to Yale's involvement with slavery.

Clergy and community activists demanded reparations from the University based on the findings of three doctoral candidates who this summer wrote a report critical of Yale's support of slaveholders. Some Yale professors who study slavery have questioned the accuracy of parts of the essay, "Yale, Slavery and Abolition," but University administrators plan to meet with activists this month to discuss the reparation demands.

In September 1831, the Rev. Simeon Jocelyn proposed the founding of a college for black seminarians in New Haven, but later that month the Yale supported-Board of Alderman passed a resolution that stated a college for blacks would be "incompatible with the prosperity, if not the existence of the present institutions of learning, and will be destructive to the best interests of the city."

The Amistad Committee and the New Haven Slavery Reparation Task Force reiterated demands Friday for Yale to make certain changes to compensate for its reported involvement with slavery.

The Rev. Eric Smith of the Community Baptist Church said the group wants Yale to change the name of all residential colleges named after slaveowners and traders.

Second, they want a fund created that would give New Haven residents no-interest loans or grants for the economic development of New Haven. Third, they asked Yale to give $6 million a year to New Haven public schools. The group calculated the figure by determining the difference between the amount of taxes Yale would pay on its property if the University were not tax-exempt and the amount the state currently reimburses the city in payments in lieu of taxes.

Last, the group asked for the formation of a college scholarship fund for New Haven high school graduates.

But slavery was so pervasive before the 19th century that even Center Church's history is intermingled with slavery.

From 1673 to 1797 the pastors of Center Church were slaveowners, but Friday the church's pastor, Shepard Parson, sent out a message of repentance.

"The Greek word to repent literally translates to turn around or to think differently," Parson said. "Center

Church's history is also dappled at best."

He said he repents the wrongs committed by Center Church, "particularly of slavery and racism."

Gerald Horne, the author of the forward to "Yale, Slavery and Abolition" and a professor of African-American studies at the University of North Carolina, said he was optimistic about New Haven's situation.

For Yale, Horne said, "this is the time to get involved in a righteous nitty gritty political struggle."

By Andrea Panchok-Berry


Yale Daily News

Submitted by BRC-REPARATIONS: Black Radical Congress - Reparations Caucus




September 12, 2001

CHICKENS COMING HOME TO ROOST: PART II? By JA Tolbert Jr, editor Although there were White folks all around me declaring their willingness to kill all Muslims and bomb Arab countries back to the stone-age, after the attacks in New York and Washington, I was warned, by more than a few people, that I shouldn’t verbalize my initial, and current, observations about the "chickens coming home to roost."

"They are sensitive now, you may piss them off" I was warned. I immediately thought of Elijah Muhammad’s order to Malcolm X after he, Malcolm, made the comment that the assassination of President Kennedy was the result of America’s "chickens coming home to roost." What my advisors fail to realize is that the great majority of White people (not all), but especially White males, will always be pissed off, irrational, racist, militaristic, arrogant, and always in denial- what else is new? This is not a discourse on the 'always-and-forever,’ volatile political situation in the so-called 'Middle East.' Readers of this publication understand the dirt the American government and corporations have been involved in which have led to this and previous tragedies all over the world. I unequivocally and clearly state, that it is my fundamental position that the official and unofficial foreign policy of the United States is based on capitalist exploitation of the rest of the world-period. That should not be a hard concept for many of my middle-class negro friends as they agitate for slave reparations. They are not quiet about their position on internal American oppression, so why should I be silent about my thoughts on American oppression on an international scale. But that is the point of my commentary, most of us, Black and White, are intentionally ignorant and intentionally in denial of international crimes perpetrated in order to keep oil and wealth flowing to America. All these good Black folks, mesmerized by the need to be accepted by a country that continually denies their human rights, who are currently singing ‘God Bless America,’ should be mindful of the American exuberance for ‘justice.’

That American ‘justice’ is based on a history of the lynching of their African ancestors. The lynch mobs sang ‘God Bless America.’ So it was with great disappointment for me to hear Jesse Jackson state, on the Tom Joyner show, that we should 'go get em.' Maybe Jesse is taking this stand to re-establish his prominence after the scandal with his baby's mama. How patriotic of Jesse to forget the American imperialistic paradigm that he, on numerous occasions, has worked against in order to establish relations with other oppressed groups, specifically the Palestinian people. Who could forget the good Reverend's 'special' diplomatic license of getting American military personnel out of Arab territories. Unfortunately, you will not get this type of information or analysis watching the CNN, NBC, ABC, CBS, and damn sure not the FOX television network. You will not even get it from the 'urban contemporary' or hip-hop radio stations. How ridiculous is our ignorance? During Tuesday's attack, quite a few 'urban' formatted radio stations here in Philadelphia did not switch to news sources their White managers and owners clearly have access to. Imagine that-I could have still shaken my rump while America burned. "Basic rights are easily taken for granted -- that is, until they're obviously threatened or actually curtailed. And, as history amply illustrates, the trigger is often public anxiety about some outside threat or "enemy within." On Sept. 11, with the bombing of the World Trade Center and Pentagon, that trigger may have been pulled."

"As for the US pulling its delegation from the conference, tell me something new, the last two conferences the US didn't even show up at all! Does anyone in their right mind believe the US government or its European progenitors/brethren are going to admit the full extent of their crimes against our people much less knowingly put themselves in a position whereby they will be held accountable? To do so would force them to admit all they have, their standard of living, wealth and world standing are the direct result of predatory rapaciousness and genocide rather then a mythical innate superiority on their part." http://www.tbwt.com/content/article.asp?articleid=1625 "There is no America," he says. "There is no democracy. There is only I.B.M. and ITT and AT&amp;T and DuPont, Dow, Union Carbide and Exxon. Those are the nations of the world today."

http://www.commondreams.org/views01/0909-04.htm "Cheney's appearance was nearly cancelled because some delegates balked at having to check their firearms at the door."

By JA Tolbert Jr, editor



See also:

Empire Under Attack: The Threat To Freedom


TheDigitalDrum has provided news, information, and commentary for those of African descent. The content of this newsletter represents the views of the respective authors and does not necessarily reflect the views of theDigitalDrum and/or JA Tolbert, Jr. Questions, comments, email address changes? Email criticalman@earthlink.net

Submitted by merukheop@hotmail.com (Meru Kheop)


CHICKENS COMING HOME TO ROOST: PART II: If this newsletter was passed on to you, and you want to subscribe for yourself (to guarantee delivery), please send an email to: theDigitalDrum-subscribe@topica.com (SORRY, NO FEDERAL GOVERNMENT EMAIL ADDRESSES. Federal authorities have legally banned this publication from distribution in its email systems because it advocates that Black people think, organize, and act.

[Nothing takes the place of the Truth. Never forget that "The Truth shall set you free." For "Chickens Coming Home to Roost, Part I, please contact criticalman@earthlink.net. T.Y., Editor]



Imari A. Obadele


"Without Sanctuary"

The web address for Without Sanctuary" is listed in the REPNOW Newsletter #13.

Please pass this information on to others for it is out of…


James Allen’s photos on the lynchings of Blacks in America


See a wide range of E-mail Addresses & WebSites on REPARATIONS in the REPNOW Issue #13.




Minister Malik Al-Arkam

Boston Representative of the

Honorable Silis Muhammad






Oscar L. Beard


Stay strong in the struggle; we will win!




I am Gregory Carey, Founder and President of Reparations Central, an online reparations searchable database. We would like for you to view our website that is in the development stage at http://www.reparationscentral.com

We are also attempting to unify and centralize the reparations movement. We are looking for other organizations that are doing reparations work to put on our website. Also, we are asking every organization to consider putting an audio/video presentation on our website. This website is the hub of the reparations movement worldwide. We need your support and help to make this reparations clearinghouse a successful venture.

In Struggle,

Aluta Continua Asante Sana



1.) I suggest that you approach the city in which you reside for reparations, support for reparations, or information as to how to obtain reparations. Your strategy may be a model we all may benefit from at the local level.

2.) Next, demonstrate your willingness to join others in the struggle for reparations.

3.) I would hope that you join or start an N’COBRA chapter in your locale area (if there is none) and become an active and energetic member/reparations information resource, for your Afrikan brothers and sisters.

Submitted by R. Hazard, N’COBRA



"Together We shall Win REPARATIONS NOW!!!"

Free Your Mind - Join N’COBRA.... Free The People.... Free The Land...

Robert Hazard

S.E. Regional Rep. N’COBRA


"If you are thinking one year ahead, sow a seed.

if you thinking ten years ahead, plant a tree.

If you thinking one hundred years ahead ...

educate the people."

A Manchurian Proverb

Compliments of Shakira A. Ali


Up You Mighty Race; We Can Accomplish What We Will!!!!

I Remain to Serve,

Senghor Baye





September 5, 2001

Much has been said over the past few days, weeks and months about the United States and Israeli government’s threats to pull out of the 3rd UN World Conference Against Racism (WCAR) in Durban. Good bye, and good riddance!

Two UN World Conferences Against Racism have convened without the United States and Israeli government’s presence. This one too shall continue to meet, and we pray that it will declare the Trans- Atlantic slave trade, slavery and colonialism crimes against humanity, with no statues of limitation, and in so doing, make a meaningful and lasting impact on the world-wide struggle against racism, racial discrimination, xenophobia and related intolerance, including caste-based discrimination.

Perhaps here, we should remind the United States and Israeli governments, the United Nations and ourselves, that it is the people, through the leadership of their popular and revolutionary movements and organizations who make history, not the governments of the world, not the United Nations, and not even the Non-governmental Organizations. The struggle therefore continues and intensifies!

The Trans-Atlantic Slave Trade, Slavery and Colonialism

Much has been said over the past few days, weeks, months and years about the Trans-Atlantic slave trade, slavery, colonialism and apartheid, crimes against humanity; whether acknowledged as so by the United Nations or not. Permit us here to prove that they were and remain Pan-African and International in their scope and impact.

The Trans-Atlantic slave trade began in Africa, not in the America’s as so many forces incorrectly proclaim. According to the UNESCO Slave Trade Project, the Museum of the Atlantic Slave Trade, and the Harvard Database on Slave Voyages, between 28 and 42 million African people were captured and enslaved between 1441 and 1888. Fourteen to twenty-one million Africans, one half of all captives, two women to every man, were enslaved in Africa. Four to six million Africans, 40% of all captives and slaves, were murdered or died along the entire "way of death" which included the wars of conquest in the interior of Africa, the forced march to the sea, the period of incarceration in the forts and castles along the coasts, and during the Middle Passage. Ten to fifteen million of these African slaves, two men for every woman, were landed alive in the Americas.

Portugal and Brazil, Great Britain and France kidnapped, transported and sold more than 9,643,600 or 87.4% of the landed African slaves. They were responsible for the death of 3,857,440 additional African slaves. Holland, Spain, the United States, Canada and Denmark, Scandinavia and Germany kidnapped, transported and sold more than 1,418,900 or 21% of the landed African slaves. They are collectively responsible for the death of 567,560 additional African slaves. The Vatican sanctioned, legalized and benefited from the Trans-Atlantic slave trade, slavery and colonialism as well. The records exist, and the facts speak for themselves!

For over 400 years, for more than twenty generations, Western Europe and their colonies in the Americas invaded, pillaged, raped and destroyed countless African villages, societies and civilizations in at least eight major regions of Africa, including: Senegambia, Sierra Leone, the Windward and Gold Coasts, the Bight of Benin, the Bight of Biafra, West Central Africa and South East Africa. For more than 400 years, for more than twenty generations, Western Europe and their colonies in the Americas murdered and raped, kidnapped and enslaved tens of millions of African people in Africa, and transported them to, murdered and enslaved them in at least 15 major areas in the Americas.

Without the Trans-Atlantic slave trade and slavery, the European colonization of Africa and the Western Hemisphere would have been difficult, if not impossible. Colonialism, settler-colonialism, neo-colonialism and apartheid, crimes against humanity, existed for an additional 100 years after the formal end of slavery in Africa and the African Diaspora, and continue to exist in Africa and the African Diaspora today, albeit in contemporary manifestations and forms.

All moral and reasonable women and men must acknowledge that these crimes against humanity have no statue of limitations. All moral and reasonable women and men must admit that these crimes against humanity have had and continue to have a tremendous impact, (economic, social and political) on Africa, the African Diaspora and the world. All women and men of morality and reason must therefore accept that reparations is the order of the day!

On Reparations, the Debt and Aid

We have demonstrated the Pan-African and International scope and impact of the Trans-Atlantic slave trade, slavery, colonialism, settler-colonialism, neo-colonialism and apartheid, crimes against humanity. It goes without question therefore, that reparations must be even more Pan-African and International in its scope and impact.

There is no part of Africa or the African Diaspora that has not been impacted by the Trans-Atlantic slave trade, slavery, colonialism, settler-colonialism, neo-colonialism and apartheid, crimes against humanity; and therefore every part of Africa and the African Diaspora is owed and should demand reparations. There is no part of Western Europe and the Americas that has not participated in, or benefited from these crimes against humanity; and therefore every country, corporation and non-governmental organization in Western Europe and the Americas owes and must be required to pay reparations, according to their particular circumstances and conditions.

Permit us to suggest, that if the Trans-Atlantic slave trade, slavery, colonialism, settler-colonialism, neo-colonialism and apartheid are crimes against humanity, then the racist accumulation of power, of capital, of wealth, and of debt that these crimes have created should be redistributed and liquidated respectively. We say to Africa, the African Diaspora and the world, without hesitation or compromise, that the slave, colonial and apartheid debt can not, should not and must not be paid. We also say to Africa, the African Diaspora and the world, that the power, the capital, and the wealth of Western Europe and the Americas, which was built and is being maintained on the blood and sweat of African, Indigenous and other Oppressed Peoples must and will be redistributed, and used to repair, rehabilitate and redeem our peoples, our societies and our nations.

We therefore demand the outright and unconditional conciliation of the debt, and we demand reparations, not welfare, not affirmative action, and not handouts or aid. We demand and reaffirm our uncompromising intent to reclaim our land, and our material and immaterial resources!

With reparations, African people can and will solve all of the problems that confront Africa and the African Diaspora! With reparations, African People, the world over, can and will make our contribution towards world humanity, and ensure that these and other crimes against humanity will never be committed again.

Zionism is Racism and Apartheid, A Crime Against Humanity

We have heard and read much since our arrival in Azania, about Dr. King’s 1967 statement on zionism and anti-semitism. Permit us here to remind zionism and ourselves of two of Dr. [Martin Luther] King’s other statements.

Dr. King said, "injustice anywhere is a threat to justice everywhere." Dr. King also said, on April 4, 1967, one year and four days before he was murdered by the United States government, that "there comes a time, when silence becomes betrayal, of the very principles in which one believes." Dr King said, in this speech, that he had agonized for more than two years over his silence with respect to the war in Vietnam, and that his principles compelled him to speak against that war, and to condemn the United States government as "the greatest purveyor of violence" that the world had ever seen.

Permit us to suggest here, that injustice against Palestinian and Muslim peoples in Palestine and the Middle East, is a threat to justice everywhere.

Permit us also to suggest here, that if Dr. King were alive today, his principles would compel him to speak out against the war in Palestine and the Middle East, and to condemn the Israeli and United States governments as the greatest purveyors of violence in the world today. If Dr. King failed do so, he would be guilty of betraying the principles that he believed in, and therefore cease to have any moral or political relevance.

Thank you!

By Bob Brown, Director

Kwame Ture Work-Study Institute and Library

Pretoria, South Africa

Submitted by brc-reparations@yahoogroups.com

[Remarkable! Absolutely Remarkable! T.Y., Editor]




September 11, 2001

In the Treaty of Tordesillas (1493) Pope Alexander VI divided all the African slaves in the New World between two rival Catholic nations, Spain and Portugal. The Vatican Empire played a key role in subjugating and destroying Africans for centuries and extracted massive financial rewards from the slave trade, colonialism and neo-colonialism. Please note that today Pope John Paul II advocates that European nations apologize to the victims and do something for them, but says nothing about the Catholic Church itself owing huge Reparations to Africans and African-Americans.

Today in 2001 the Vatican continues to prosper from the donations of Black Catholics in both Africa and the Americas whose ancestors were forcibly assimilated into the slave-master's religion. If the Pope were sincere (which he is not), he would call for a U.N. forum for African-Americans, advocate that the U.N. place a Reparations Sanction on the U.S. government, and pledge $100 billion as a down payment on the Reparations which the Catholic Church owes us.

Minister Malik Al-Arkam




September 11, 2001

This is an addendum to my earlier message entitled "POPE MIXING TRUTH WITH FALSEHOOD ON ISSUE OF REPARATIONS."

In 1493 Pope Alexander VI issued a papal decree dividing the slaves and riches in the world between Spain and Portugal. The actual Treaty of Tordesillas was enacted in 1494. And in 1506 Pope Julius II sanctioned the new line of demarcation.

Minister Malik Al-Arkam





Demarcation, Line of, boundary established by Pope Alexander VI on May 4, 1493 to define the spheres of Spanish and Portuguese possessions in the New World. The line ran due north and south 100 leagues (about 483 km/about 300 mi) west of the Azores and Cape Verde Islands. All new lands lying east of this line were to belong to Portugal; all those to the west to Spain. Portuguese dissatisfaction with this arrangement led to the Treaty of Tordesillas (1494) between Portugal and Spain, in which a new line of demarcation, sanctioned by Pope Julius II in 1506, was set 370 leagues (about 1770 km/about 1110 mi) west of the Cape Verde Islands. As a result of this change, Brazil became a Portuguese possession. The Line of Demarcation, and all agreements based on it, were abrogated in 1750 by a treaty settling a dispute over the southwestern boundary of Brazil. The 1750 treaty was in turn abrogated in 1761. Further disputes between the two countries were settled by a new treaty in 1779.

Minister Malik Al-Arkam



Submitted by brc-reparations@yahoogroups.com



September 15, 2001


I have been affected by the events of the 11th in ways I can't describe. I'm still getting messages about friends who were there and are now ok, and I'm still hearing of friends who are rescue workers and on the scene. I'm trying not to run all the "if/then's" that would've put me on the scene for the attack. I have to remind myself not to squeeze my 2 week old daughter too tightly or hold my young son in one place for too long.

I am a North Jersey boy, so the WTC was a landmark I could see from almost every hill I climbed in this area. But you won't see me singing God Bless America or carrying the flag of the United States. When I shared this with someone I love and respect, I was greeted with the standard racist rhetoric of "where would you rather live?" Well, the answer is I would rather live in a just United States. I believe that the blood of those who have died is on the hands of OUR government, not Afghanistan.

The United States has since its inception carried out a world wide reign of terror on any nation that has something that we can exploit. I'm hearing a lot about how benevolent the United States is, but I have not been able to remember a time when we helped a nation without then exploiting it for what we needed afterwards.

I'm sure that the Palenstinians know that they could defeat Israel and get THEIR land back if it wasn't for the backing of Israel by the United States. We have been fortunate that attacks such as this, and even more serious, have not occurred up to now. If we are the benevolent father, why do we rush to the aid of Israel (a powerful nation), and not Haiti....Liberia (where people's limbs were being hacked off)...Bosnia? Is it because they hold no economic value to us? Yes. Hawaii, Puerto Rico, the Philippines...all places that flew the United States flag at one time...were conquered.

The reason we rushed to Kuwait was for oil. The people we fight today were the people we trained yesterday. When we do invade Afghanistan, remember that each soldier killed will be killled by someone who was trained by the US when Afghanistan fought Russia. Remember that one of our Navy ships was sunk by a silkworm during the Gulf War....silkworms are American missiles.

Finally, remember that the majority of immigrants to this country are European immigrants. There are more Canadians illegally in this country than Mexicans. There are more businesses owned by England in this country than owned by Japan. The war against so-called people of color in this country is alive and well, and is as American as colonialism and exploitation. Where was the call for expulsion of white people after Oklahoma City?

I will be carrying a flag today. It will be the red, black, and green flag.

The flag of Black Nationalism, remembering my nation which has been under attack for 4 hundred years. Our "benevolent father" US government has put all it's citizens in harms way and made us and those in NY and Washington expendable commodities in it's worldwide quest for more. It hurts me to see African Americans, Latinos, and now Arab Americans draped in American flags. I don't know how much more cozy with your oppressor you can become. I love this country that my ancestors have built. But no amount of media propaganda can make me forget. I wish I could lose the ability to feel until the WTC site has been completely cleared. I never thought I could hurt like this. But I will not get drawn into the hype. I will not forget why this happened.



Submitted by shemia miller <shemia@aol.com>

[I hear ya! T.Y., Editor]



September 16, 2001

Injustice anywhere. . . Knowing the risk of fighting against the currents of seemingly popular sentiment, this is a suggestion that while we pray for the innocent victims of the events of last Tuesday, let us also think very seriously about where we are in history and what we should be doing with our lives.

Here in Ghana, across Africa, and around the world, every day, mothers and fathers, sisters and brothers, and daughters and sons are dying as a direct result of American created, directed, and imposed policies and actions. Daily, American imperialism kills, maims, devastates and terrorizes the lives of normal, innocent, average people. We are killed by policies which require that we pay a manufactured debt to a Wall Street banker before we pay to provide immunizations for our children. We are killed by policies that require us to sell our businesses and resources to "investors" resulting in layoffs, slave wages, and our 10-year old children selling water and oranges on the street for pennies. We are killed by the dumping of American-made weapons into the hands of American-trained soldiers gone crazy in the support of American-controlled oil in Nigeria, sugar cane in Haiti, diamonds in Sierra Leone, and rubber in Liberia. In the very same way, on September 11, 2001, many normal, average, innocent people lost their lives as a direct result of American imperialism. Although it can be shocking, it should not surprise us. As Malcolm X said on another occasion, "Chickens come home to roost."

Perhaps, more and more of us will continue to see that the masses of people --- normal, average, everyday folk, all over the world --- are linked in our humanity. We are linked in our reaction to the tragedy of innocent lives lost. As a result of Tuesday's events, many of us may also begin to see ourselves becoming increasingly linked in our susceptibility and vulnerability. I also hope that we may also begin to see that wherever we may live in the world, whatever language we speak, whatever God we worship, our lives are shaped in the extreme by the inhumane policies of a system which tremendously benefits just a few while leaving most of us clinging desperately to the vestiges of our humanity. This same despicable system now attempts to continue its massive oppression of humanity by encouraging, fostering and maintaining our ignorance: keeping humanity divided and then distracted from the real cause of our suffering. After highlighting the justifiable and understandable shock of average folk who have lost their innocence and their innocents, we will also be shown images of people who celebrate the events that occurred in the US on September 11, 2001. As usual, they will simply show crowds rejoicing and the burning of American flags. There will be no attempt to show or explain why so many in the world feel a justifiable and understandable hatred of America and its policies.

Many of us have lost our innocence long ago. Many of us lost our land and control of our lives long ago. We are fighting against America to get it back, even within America. Many of us have lost and continue to lose our mothers and fathers, sisters and brothers, and daughters and sons every day. Whether we loose our neighbors or loved ones to malaria, a crack-overdose, AIDS, dysentery, zionist missiles or NATO bombers, we understand the role that America and American policies play in these tragedies. We have to understand why some people now celebrate when there is at least a sense that some consequence has fallen on America, that the Goliath of the world does not always have its way. This is not the first war of the 21st Century but rather a continuation of a war that started long ago. Whether we know it or not, whether we accept it or not, we are in the midst of an ongoing war against injustice and oppression.

Despite imperialist attempts to portray everyone they kill as a crazed or fanatical demon, most people in America do not celebrate the fact that Palestinians are losing their loved ones on a daily basis at the hands of Israelis with American-made weapons and an American financed military. Most do not even know, much less celebrate, the fact that millions have been killed in the Congo and Central Africa as a direct result of first Europe's and now America's need to have unfettered access to its invaluable minerals and labor. In the same way, those who are rejoicing around the world today, are not celebrating the death of innocent people in America. Some are celebrating the possibility that maybe our own daily suffering and loss of life will soon end because of the recent events in America. However, this will not likely happen unless we are able to see through the cloud of dust imperialist media will use to hide the real human tragedy of our suffering. The real commonality we all share as people, even more now than we did a week ago. When America's imperialist leaders try to convince us to direct anger and vengeance toward this individual or that, this group or that, this nation or that one, let us try to look at the real cause of the tragedy.

If we can get past the Voice of America, CNN, the New York Times, BBC, and all their satellite outlets, maybe we can look for the root of the problem. It is only then that we even have a chance of finding a cure. The challenges of humanity can never be solved by trying to bomb or kill people into submission. In the same way, attempts to use the United Nations, the International Monetary Fund, the World Trade Organization or other so-called world bodies to legislate the majority of the world into accepting injustice will never succeed. Elimination of human suffering can only come about through legitimate and honest human-centered education. We have to seek an education that will enable us to truly understand our global interdependence: an education that will lead to a new level of human enlightenment.

An enlightenment that enables us to see that when we lose loved ones to political violence in New York, it is no different than when we lose loved ones to political violence in Freetown, Belfast, Sudan, Somalia, Palestine, Iraq, Afghanistan, Panama, Grenada, and so many other places around the world where people have suffered at the hands of American-led imperialism. So, as we rightly pray for and console the families of those innocents who lost their lives in New York, let us also remember that as Dr. Martin Luther King so eloquently stated, "Injustice anywhere is a threat to justice everywhere." As long as there is injustice, no one is safe. We must fight to eliminate injustice, only then will the violence subside.

When you kill someone's mother or father or child, is it not likely that some or one of the survivors may one day be bold enough to strike back at the one that they believe responsible? Even to the point of killing his or herself in the process. When we are bombarded with images, rhetoric, newspapers and even E-mail messages that encourage us to raise American flags and sing the praises of America, we are witnessing and participating in a well orchestrated script designed to prepare us to blindly support retaliation against someone, anyone. Let us remember that those who will be killed in America's next bombing exercise will be someone's child, someone's mother, someone's fiancee, someone's school teacher. Most people around the world would call it terrorism when bombs and missiles are mercilessly dropped on innocent people in Bagdad, Kabul, Tripoli, Khartoum, Hanoi or Hiroshima, not only when they fall on America. When we say terrorism must stop, let us remind the American government and the people of America that all lives are sacred. Please burn a candle for all of the victims of American-led imperialism, not just those killed in New York, Pennsylvania and Washington, DC on September, 11, 2001. If we want peace, we must have justice. Work for justice.


Submitted by merukheop@hotmail.com (Meru Kheop)

[We are certainly waking up to the real story. T.Y., Editor]


…let's work together to heighten this righteous call for justice.

Peace and Power,





"If a white man hates me, that's his problem.

If he has the power to implement his hateful thinking,

that's my problem"

AHREF="http://members.aol.com/GhanaUnion/afrohero.html"Ancestor KwameToure (1941 - 1998)


October 9, 2001
TransAfrica Forum
Randall Robinson, President and Edward Lewis, Chair of TransAfrica Forum Prepare Organization for New Phase. Danny Glover Assumes Chairmanship, and Johnnie Cochran Joins Board.
Washington, D.C. - On Monday, December 3, 2001, TransAfrica Forum's Board of Directors will host a gala tribute to Randall Robinson and Edward Lewis at the TransAfrica Forum Building, located at 1744 R Street, NW, Washington, D.C.
Mr. Robinson announced that he stepped down as President of TransAfrica Forum on October 1, 2001, but will serve on the TransAfrica Forum Board.
Mr. Lewis ended his term as chair, but will remain a member of the board.
Mr. Robinson started TransAfrica in 1977 in a two-room office and with a $5,000 grant. Today TransAfrica Forum is headquartered in a 5-level former embassy building worth over $4 million, and has net assets of $2.5 million.
Beyond the substantial changes in the physical environment and asset base under Robinson's stewardship, TransAfrica Forum's impact on U.S.-foreign policy and international relations has been even more compelling.
Edward Lewis, publisher of ESSENCE magazine, and chair and chief executive officer of Essence Communications, has chaired TransAfrica Forum's Board since 1993. Over the years, Mr. Lewis has been a key source of strategic advice as well as financial support for the organization.
In 1976, TransAfrica was merely an idea - a hope. That year, with the Cold War wreaking havoc in Africa and the Caribbean, prominent African-Americans decided in a fall meeting that America needed an African-American organization to promote and secure enlightened, constructive U.S. policies towards Africa and the Caribbean. In the intervening years, TransAfrica Forum has had a direct impact on the lives of millions of people throughout the world. Indeed, the organization has gone beyond merely influencing U.S. policies towards Africa and the Caribbean. It has successfully reversed deeply entrenched, but ill-advised, major U.S. policies towards these regions and others.
Both Randall Robinson and Edward Lewis now wish to prepare the organization for its next phase. The search committee will be chaired by Charles J. Ogletree, Jr. Professor of Law, Harvard University. Professor Ogletree has been an active and committed member of TransAfrica Forum's board since 1993. In the interim, Selena Mendy Singleton, Esq. will be named Acting Executive Director, effective October 1, 2001. Ms. Singleton has served as TransAfrica Forum's Senior Policy Advisor since 1998.
Danny Glover, human rights activist, actor, and Goodwill Ambassador for the United Nations Development Programme, has been a member of TransAfrica Forum's board since 1999. Mr. Glover will assume the chairmanship of TransAfrica Forum's Board of Directors effective October 1, 2001. He has been a major financial supporter of the organization, and has played an important role in the organization's policy initiatives.
Johnnie L. Cochran, Jr., internationally acclaimed lawyer and philanthropist, will become TransAfrica Forum's newest board member, joining current members Dr. Johnnetta B. Cole, President Emerita, Spelman College; Harriet R. Michel, President, National Minority Development Supplier Council; and Dr. James Davis, internist and human rights activist. Dr. Cole, a dedicated board member since 1999, has greatly supported the organization through her advice and financial support. With TransAfrica since the early 1980's, Dr. Davis has steadfastly contributed to the organization. Dr. Cole and Dr. Davis will remain on the board.
The honorary chair of the gala tribute will be Earl G. Graves, Sr., Editor and Publisher of Black Enterprise Magazine. The chair of the event will be Harriet R. Michel. Mr. Graves has been a committed member of TransAfrica's board of directors and important financial support since 1992. Ms. Michel joined TransAfrica Forum's board in 1981 and has been a source of both financial and political support over the years. Ms. Michel will remain on the board.
From: ebontek@earthlink.net (Sam Anderson)
Submitted by brc-reparations@yahoogroups.com

BRC-REPARATIONS: Black Radical Congress - Reparations Caucus


"Power never conceded without a demand, it never did and never will - where there is no struggle, there is no progress." F. Douglas


BECOME A MEMEBER OF N'COBRA. Visit us at www.N’COBRA.com, write the national headquarters at:

P.O. Box 62622

Washington. D.C. 20029-2622

E-mail me for further information about the WCAR at onajemuid4@cs.com or write:

Onaje Mu'id

P.O. Box 8003

Englewood, NJ 07631.

*Onaje Mu'id is a human rights activist with the International Commissioner of N'COBRA and Policy Chair of the National Black Alcoholisms and Addiction Council-New York Chapter and Ndundu member of the Council of Independent Black Institutions.




August 27, 2001

Whites have an obligation to recognize slavery's legacy

In 1854 my great-grandfather, Morris Marable, was sold on an auction block in Georgia for $500. For his white slave master, the sale was just "business as usual." But to Morris Marable and his heirs, slavery was a crime against our humanity. This pattern of human-rights violations against enslaved African-Americans continued under Jim Crow segregation for nearly another century.

The fundamental problem of American democracy in the 21st century is the problem of "structural racism": the deep patterns of socioeconomic inequality and accumulated disadvantage that are coded by race, and constantly justified in public discourse by both racist stereotypes and white indifference. Do Americans have the capacity and vision to dismantle these structural barriers that deny democratic rights and opportunities to millions of their fellow citizens?

This country has previously witnessed two great struggles to achieve a truly multicultural democracy.

The First Reconstruction (1865-1877) ended slavery and briefly gave black men voting rights, but gave no meaningful compensation for two centuries of unpaid labor. The promise of "40 acres and a mule" was for most blacks a dream deferred.

The Second Reconstruction (1954-1968), or the modern civil-rights movement, outlawed legal segregation in public accommodations and gave blacks voting rights. But these successes paradoxically obscure the tremendous human costs of historically accumulated disadvantage that remain central to black Americans' lives.

The disproportionate wealth that most whites enjoy today was first constructed from centuries of unpaid black labor. Many white institutions, including Ivy League universities, insurance companies and banks, profited from slavery. This pattern of white privilege and black inequality continues today.

Demanding reparations is not just about compensation for slavery and segregation. It is, more important, an educational campaign to highlight the contemporary reality of "racial deficits" of all kinds, the unequal conditions that impact blacks regardless of class. Structural racism's barriers include "equity inequity," the absence of black capital formation that is a direct consequence of America's history. One third of all black households actually have negative net wealth. In 1998 the typical black family's net wealth was $16,400, less than one fifth that of white families. Black families are denied home loans at twice the rate of whites.

Blacks remain the last hired and first fired during recessions. During the 1990-91 recession, African-Americans suffered disproportionately. At Coca-Cola, 42 percent of employees who lost their jobs were black. At Sears, 54 percent were black. Blacks have significantly shorter life expectancies, in part due to racism in the health establishment. Blacks are statistically less likely than whites to be referred for kidney transplants or early-stage cancer surgery.

In criminal justice, African-Americans constitute only one seventh of all drug users. Yet we account for 35 percent of all drug arrests, 55 percent of drug convictions and 75 percent of prison admissions for drug offenses.

White Americans today aren't guilty of carrying out slavery and segregation. But whites have a moral and political responsibility to acknowledge the continuing burden of history's structural racism.

A reparations trust fund could be established, with the goal of closing the socioeconomic gaps between blacks and whites. Funds would be targeted specifically toward poor, disadvantaged communities with the greatest need, not to individuals.

Let's eliminate the racial unfairness in capital markets that perpetuates black poverty. A national commitment to expand black home ownership, full employment and quality health care would benefit all Americans, regardless of race.

Reparations could begin America's Third Reconstruction, the final chapter in the 400-year struggle to abolish slavery and its destructive consequences. As Malcolm X said in 1961, hundreds of years of racism and labor exploitation are "worth more than a cup of coffee at a white cafe. We are here to collect back wages."

By Manning Marable <mm247@columbia.edu>


Marable directs African-American studies at Columbia University.



Submitted by brc-news@lists.tao.ca

[I say we first get our freedom out of this place, if this is our desire, and be given funds to set up our own communities, schools, farms, health centers, and small businesses. And for those who wish to remain in this land, then let them decide, but by all means clean up the ghettoes and establish an educational system befitting of teaching our Black children with committed teachers. T.Y., Editor]



The Farmer

September 3, 2001 [Volume 4, Number 18]

The argument is now mounting for "Reparations" for the Slave Trade. So-called white people and even some "negroes" are arguing that that's all over now and the people who benefited from slavery are long dead. They use such arguments as "Look, we have basketball players who are making millions of dollars. In fact, Black ones are making more money than white ones."

In this article I won't try to put a dollar figure on the horrors of the Slave Trade, but as an economist I will try to show you some of the "tricks of the trade" in the modern "Slavery Game". Back in the old days of slavery the slaves would work all day for "massa". Everything that they would produce would go to massa. However, massa would allow them to have a little plot of land to grow enough vegetables and a few hogs so that the slaves could keep themselves fed. Massa would also allow the slaves on their own time to make for themselves some clothes to wear and build for themselves a shack to live in.

Now of course, black people work in many different jobs and get a salary. They use their salaries to buy clothes, cars and homes. Therefore they are free right?

Let's make a simple economic world of "X's" and "O's". And let's say that to have a descent way of life you need at least one "X" and one "O". In the old slavery world, the slaves had to make an "X" and an "O" for massa and then after working for him they had to work overtime if they wanted an "X" or an "O".

Now today let's say that black people make "X's" and white folk make "O's". Let's assume that it takes the same amount of resources and time to make both "X's" and "O's". In a "perfect" world the Blacks could make two "X's" and the whites two "O's". They would trade with each other on equal terms and trade one "X" for one "O", leaving both of them with one of each, perfect.

However, let's say that the Whites control the "terms of exchange" and demand two "X's" for each "O" that they make. Now they would trade one "O" and get two "X's" leaving the Blacks with one "O" and no "X's". To keep up with the "Jones", the Blacks would now have to go back to work and make another "X" for their family or just do without. Interestingly an article done in the June 7, 1999 Newsweek magazine on the "Status of Black America" revealed that the median income for a family of four for Blacks was $35,000 per year but for Whites was $58,000 per year, or 3/5ths (sound familiar?). Therefore, to live the same lifestyle would require almost twice as much effort. Or in other words, white folks, as a group, are getting 40% more for their labor just because they are white. This is a form of modern slavery.

However, when you look at the real criteria for evaluating wealth, net assets (equity), each individual black person owns 1/7th the amount of equity of their white counterparts (see:http://www.muhammadfarms.com/News-Apr1-7.htm#Black-White_wealth_gap). In other words, many black people work hard all their lives but wind up with nothing and that my friend is the life of a "slave".

Now let's move to the international scene. African countries broke away from their colonial masters and set up "independent" states in the 50's and 60's. But white folk came up with this thing called "floating exchange rates" in 1970's. In 1976 the world went off the gold standard and fixed exchange rates to a system of floating exchange rates. That sounds innocuous enough, "floating exchange rates", but in fact such a system has gone far to "sink" the countries of the "South" into a form of modern slavery.

This is how it works. Let's take one country, Liberia, which I visited in March of 2000. Liberia's currency is called the "dollar" and since 1940 has had a fixed exchange rate of $1 Liberian to $1 American until 1976. Now with the floating rate, the market exchange rate is $40 Liberian to $1 American. In other words it takes 40 Liberian dollars to buy one dollar's worth of an American product. If Liberians want to buy American, they must sacrifice 40 times as much resources and time as an American. The Liberians, therefore are slaves to America even more than American Blacks.

Of course if Liberia does not buy anything from America, then she would not feel the effects of slavery. However, Liberia was never taught how to produce her own electricity or set up her own tire manufacturing facilities or even make wood veneer from her extensive forests. She has diamonds, but no diamond cutting machines. She has iron, but no steel factories. She produces no cars, ships, airplanes or even household appliances. So if she wants to "modernize" she must accept the position of a slave. She must give away her raw resources and the labor of her citizens to move into the modern era. If she does not move into such an era, then America will rile her citizens up and stage another coup. To ward off a coup, the government spends Liberian dollars or trades diamonds to buy American weapons. So she still is being sucked dry.

Economists and other "word magicians" are brought in to disguise these new "slavery games" under such banners as: "free trade", "global specialization", "fiscal austerity" and "privatization". But the results remain the same, the black group works while the white group gains.

To be fair, not all Whites benefit from these "Slave Games" equally. In fact only a few families have accumulated the wealth of nations. However, Blacks must put the demand on the "white" world in general for reparations. Whites then must sort it out among themselves as to "who" will pay. Maybe a "class action" lawsuit of the poor Whites against the super rich is in order and let the rich pay for their "slavery games" and gains. However, poor whites may have a hard time finding the lawyers who will tackle such a case, since lawyers are usually on the payroll of the super rich.

The Black farmers found that out the hard way and Black America shall soon find out. See "'Snake' in the Reparations' Grass": http://www.muhammadfarms.com/Snake.htm



By Dr. Ridgely Abdul Mu'min Muhammad <drridgely@muhammadfarms.com>


Submitted by brc-reparations@yahoogroups.com

[Very interesting concept. T.Y., Editor]


Free The Mind... Free The People... Free The Land...

Robert Hazard


Board Member

S. E. Regional Representative










It Is The Black Fool Who Say

I Have Lost Nothing In Afrika!!


A fool is verified by the action taken,

after which it become a statement of fact.



Hear the Drum Beat of the


Afrikan Diaspora Nation State

"Up You Mighty Race"



You can visit the Afrikan Nation State Website at:


Then click on "55 Afrikan Nation."

Brother Mawusi


Many thanks to everyone who has submitted support and information for publication to help make OUR Reparations Newsletter the success it is.





For previous postings on REPARATIONS NOW IN OUR LIFE TIME and Newsletters, please go to the following link and click on "Repnow":


This REPNOW Newsletter is The LawKeepers’ contribution to our cause. For information about our determination and direction, please feel free to visit our WebSite and Delphi Forum:


Yehudah Benyamin Yisrael, President (yehudah@thelawkeepers.org / jwright@blackomahaonline.com / Yehudah74@hotmail.com)

Yehudah Yacob, Vice President (MilzAhead@AOL.COM)

Tziona Yisrael, Executive Secretary (Afraqueen@AOL.COM)

(We Exalt and Sanctify the GOD of Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob and profess the Laws HE gave to HIS Prophet Moses.)

Wisdom is the principal thing; therefore get wisdom: and with all thy getting, get understanding, Proverb 4:7 / Deuteronomy 28th Chapter: The African Slave Trade