If they sin against thee, (for there is no man that sinneth not,) and thou be angry with them,

and deliver them to the enemy, so that they carry them away captives unto the land of the enemy,

far or near; Yet if they shall bethink themselves in the land whither they were carried captives, and repent,

and make supplication unto thee in the land of them that carried them captives, saying, We have sinned,

and have done perversely, we have committed wickedness;

And so return unto thee with all their heart, and with all their soul, in the land of their enemies,

which led them away captive, and pray unto thee toward their land, which thou gavest unto their fathers,

the city which thou hast chosen, and the house which I have built for thy name:

Then hear thou their prayer and their supplication in heaven thy dwelling place, and maintain their cause,

And forgive thy people that have sinned against thee,

and all their transgressions wherein they have transgressed against thee, and give them compassion

before them who carried them captive, that they may have compassion on them:

For they be thy people, and thine inheritance, which thou broughtest forth out of Egypt,

from the midst of the furnace of iron: That thine eyes may be open unto the supplication of thy servant,

and unto the supplication of thy people Israel, to hearken unto them in all that they call for unto thee.

I Kings 8:46 – 52




The Christian religion the Slavers used to convert the Slaves is not working for us, and indeed,

it is not the Righteous Way of Life that the CREATOR GOD established for mankind in the BEGINNING!

THEREFORE, consider the facts in this document and discern right from wrong,

as our captors in no way wanted us to turn to the ONE True and Living GOD

and have HIM end the flow of “golden eggs” of wealth that Slaves presented to them!


See if the “New Testament” reiterates THUS SAITH THE LORD or if it has contradicted GOD’s WORD

and even changed HIS Ordinances ALTOGETHER.


The earth also is defiled under the inhabitants thereof; because they have transgressed the laws,

changed the ordinance, broken the everlasting covenant.

Isaiah 24:5


Slavers knew well that once their Slaves turned to the CREATOR GOD, that their reign, power, control, and wealth would come to an end.  Hence, the Slave Masters needed their chattel to believe in that which is not GOD.  They needed them to believe in a god that cannot save, and indeed, he has not.  The Christian man-god has saved no one – not even those who invented him and certainly not the Slaves!


Black Peoples need the True SAVIOR to bring us out of this miserable captivity. 

We need the same SAVIOR that DELIVERED the Children of Israel out of Egyptian bondage.



Behold, I will gather them out of all countries, whither I have driven them in mine anger,

and in my fury, and in great wrath; and I will bring them again unto this place,

and I will cause them to dwell safely:


For thus saith the LORD; Like as I have brought all this great evil upon this people,

so will I bring upon them all the good that I have promised them.

Jeremiah 32:37,42


Behold, at that time I will undo all that afflict thee: and I will save her that halteth,

and gather her that was driven out; and I will get them praise and fame in every land

where they have been put to shame.


At that time will I bring you again, even in the time that I gather you:

for I will make you a name and a praise among all people of the earth,

when I turn back your captivity before your eyes, saith the LORD.

Zephanian 3:19,20


This CREATOR GOD of Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob is our only HOPE,

as ONLY HE has proven HIMSELF to be the True and Living GOD and a DELIVERER.

The Land of Israel stands Witness to credence in HIS PROMISES!


Not all Blacks are of the SEED of Jacob, but all Blacks who have suffered

have an opportunity to rise above this captivity IF we will call upon the ONE TRY SAVIOR.


Ye are my witnesses, saith the LORD, and my servant whom I have chosen:

that ye may know and believe me, and understand that I am he:

before me there was no God formed, neither shall there be after me. I, even I, am the LORD;

and beside me there is no saviour. I have declared, and have saved, and I have shewed,

when there was no strange god among you: therefore ye are my witnesses, saith the LORD, that I am God.

Isaiah 43:10 – 12


Fear ye not, neither be afraid: have not I told thee from that time, and have declared it?

ye are even my witnesses. Is there a God beside me? yea, there is no God;

I know not any.

Isaiah 44:8












          Learn the Truth about the CREATOR GOD and HIS Covenant People

          Enslavement and Captivity of the Black Man



          Hidden Truths Not Revealed in the History Books or in the Church

Pictures and documents correlating with GOD’s WORD and the Slave Trade of the   Children of Israel



          Abe Lincoln and the Emancipation Proclamation

Jim Crow Laws








       Letters to President Obama and Sec. General Ban Ki-moon



          THUS SAITH THE LORD to prove that the Christian religion the Slave Masters used to brainwash the Slaves is a fraud










Yehudah ben Yaacov, President

Ham Lomotey, Vice President

Tziona Yisrael,

Executive Secretary

The LawKeepers, Co.




"O mountains of Israel, ye shall shoot forth your branches,

and yield your fruit to my people of Israel; for they are at hand to come." 




















“…God said moreover unto Moses,

Thus shalt thou say unto the children of Israel,

The LORD God of your fathers, the God of Abraham, the God of Isaac, and the God of Jacob,

hath sent me unto you:

this is my name for ever, and this is my memorial unto all generations.

Exodus 3:15


December 2010








But Jeshurun waxed fat, and kicked: thou art waxen fat, thou art grown thick, thou art covered with fatness; then he forsook God which made him, and lightly esteemed the Rock of his salvation.  They provoked him to jealousy with strange gods, with abominations provoked they him to anger. They sacrificed unto devils, not to God;

to gods whom they knew not,

to new gods that came newly up, whom your fathers feared not.

Of the Rock that begat thee thou art unmindful, and hast forgotten God that formed thee.

Deuteronomy 32:15  - 18


“…as for them whose heart walketh after the heart of their detestable things

and their abominations,

I will recompense their way upon their own heads, saith the Lord GOD.

Ezekiel 11:21


Hear this word that the LORD hath spoken against you, O children of Israel, against the whole family which I brought up from the land of Egypt, saying,

You only have I known of all the families of the earth:

therefore I will punish you for all your iniquities.

Amos 3:1,2


I call heaven and earth to witness against you this day,

that ye shall soon utterly perish from off the land whereunto ye go over Jordan to possess it;

ye shall not prolong your days upon it, but shall utterly be destroyed.

And the LORD shall scatter you among the nations,

and ye shall be left few in number among the heathen, whither the LORD shall lead you.

And there ye shall serve gods, the work of men's hands, wood and stone,

which neither see, nor hear, nor eat, nor smell.

Deuteronomy 4:26 - 28


But it shall come to pass, if thou wilt not hearken unto the voice of the LORD thy God,

to observe to do all his commandments and his statutes which I command thee this day;

that all these curses shall come upon thee, and overtake thee:

Deuteronomy 28:15


O that thou hadst hearkened to my commandments! then had thy peace been as a river,

and thy righteousness as the waves of the sea: Thy seed also had been as the sand,

and the offspring of thy bowels like the gravel thereof;

his name should not have been cut off nor destroyed from before me.

Isaiah 48:18,19


But I was like a lamb or an ox that is brought to the slaughter;

and I knew not that they had devised devices against me, saying,

Let us destroy the tree with the fruit thereof,

and let us cut him off from the land of the living,

that his name may be no more remembered.

Jeremiah 11:19


From the title page to abolitionist Anthony Benezet's book Some Historical Account of Guinea, London, 1788


From the title page to abolitionist Anthony Benezet's book

Some Historical Account of Guinea, London, 1788

Slavery is a social-economic system under which certain persons — known as slaves — are deprived of personal freedom and compelled to perform labour or services. The term also refers to the status or condition of those persons who are treated as the property of another person or household. This is referred to as "chattel slavery".

Slaves are held against their will from the time of their capture, purchase, or birth, and are deprived of the right to leave, to refuse to work, or to receive compensation in return for their labour. As such, slavery is one form of unfree labour.  Wikipedia: slavery




Slave Trade From Africa to the Americas (Slavery in America, an educator's site made possible by New York Life) (17)

Slave trade routes from Africa to the Americas during the period 1650-1860 are shown. There were additional routes to the New World from  Mozambique, Zanzibar and Madagascar on the east side of Africa. Most of the slaves from the east side were brought to Portuguese controlled Salvador in the state of Bahia, Brazil, along with many other slaves from Angola. Brazil received more slaves from Africa than any other country in the New World. The 500,000 African slaves sent to America represents 10% of the number sent to Brazil, and 11% of the number sent to the West Indies. According to the estimates of Hugh Thomas (12), a total of 11,128,000 African slaves were delivered live to the New World, including 500,000 to British North America; therefore, only 4.5% of the total African slaves delivered to the New World were delivered to British North America. Also from Hugh Thomas, the major sources of the 13 million slaves departing from Africa (see slave ports map, above) were Congo/Angola (3 million), Gold Coast (1.5 million), Slave Coast (2 million), Benin to Calabar* (2 million), and Mozambique/Madagascar on the east coast of Africa (1 million).


*Benin refers to the historic Kingdom of Benin (not to be confused with today's country of Benin), in Nigeria just below the Slave Coast. Calabar is farther down the coast of Nigeria, close to the border with Cameroon, on the Bight of Biafra in the Gulf of Guinea (see Nigeria today map, below).





Slave ports in West Africa in 1750 are shown, identifying those held by the British, French, Dutch, Portuguese, and Danish. Gorée Island, the slave trading port opposite Dakar, Senegal, is only three kilometers from the coast and cannot be seen on this map. In addition to these ports were slave trading locations on the east side of Africa, at Mozambique, Zanzibar, and Madagascar.

maps of Africa and the slave trade




Introductory Maps

Source: David Eltis and David Richardson, Atlas of the Transatlantic Slave Trade (New Haven, 2010), reproduced with the permission of Yale University Press. For permission to reuse these images, contact Yale University Press.

Show detail

Map 1: Overview of the slave trade out of Africa, 1500-1900

Captive Africans followed many routes from their homelands to other parts of the world. The map shows the trans-Atlantic movement of these captives in comparative perspective for the centuries since 1500 only. Estimates of the ocean-borne trade are more robust than are those for the trans-Saharan, Red Sea and Persian Gulf routes, but it is thought that for the period from the end of the Roman Empire to 1900 about the same number of captives crossed the Atlantic as left Africa by all other routes combined.

Show detail

Map 2: Migration of sugar cultivation from Asia into the Atlantic

Sugar cultivation began in the Pacific in the pre-Christian era and gradually spread to the eastern Mediterranean, the Gulf of Guinea, then to Brazil, before entering the Caribbean in the mid-seventeenth century. Eighty percent of all captives carried from Africa were taken to sugar-growing areas.

Map 3: Old World slave trade routes in the Atlantic before 1759

Before the Atlantic slave trade began and for two centuries thereafter, some African captives were taken to Europe as well as to the Atlantic islands and between African ports. It is hard to get precise estimates of these flows, but they were certainly much smaller than the trans-Atlantic traffic. Many of the captives involved in this traffic were subsequently carried to sugar plantations in the Old World.


Show detail

Map 4: Wind and ocean currents of the Atlantic basins

In the age of sail, winds and ocean currents shaped the direction of the trans-Atlantic slave trade, effectively creating two separate slave-trading systems – one in the north with voyages originating in Europe and North America, the other in the south with voyages originating in Brazil.

Show detail

Map 5: Major regions and ports involved in the trans-Atlantic slave trade, all years

Few commercial centers in the Atlantic world were untouched by the slave trade, and all the major ports had strong connections with the traffic.


Map 6: Countries and regions in the Atlantic World where slave voyages were organized, by share of captives carried off from Africa

Slave voyages were organized and left from all major Atlantic ports at some point over the nearly four centuries of the trans-Atlantic slave trade. Nevertheless, vessels from the largest seven ports, Rio de Janeiro, Bahia, Liverpool, London, Nantes, Bristol, and Pernambuco carried off almost three-quarters of all captives removed from Africa via the Atlantic Ocean. There was a major shift in the organization of slaving voyages first from the Iberian peninsular to Northern Europe, and then later back again to ports in southern Europe. A similar, but less pronounced shift may be observed in the Americas from South to North and then back again.

Total documented embarkations: 8,973,701 captives

Percent of estimated embarkations: 72.1%

Show detail

Map 7: Major coastal regions from which captives left Africa, all years

The limits of the regions shown here are “Senegambia,” anywhere north of the Rio Nunez. Sierra Leone region comprises the Rio Nunez to just short of Cape Mount. The Windward Coast is defined as Cape Mount south-east to and including the Assini river. The Gold Coast runs east of here up to and including the Volta River. Bight of Benin covers the Rio Volta to Rio Nun, and the Bight of Biafra, east of the Nun to Cape Lopez inclusive. West-central Africa is defined as the rest of the western coast of the continent south of this point, and south-eastern Africa anywhere from and to the north and east of the Cape of Good Hope. West-Central Africa was the largest regional departure point for captives through most the slave trade era. Regions closer to the Americas and Europe generated a relatively small share of the total carried across the Atlantic. Voyage length was determined as much by wind and ocean currents shown in Map 4 as by relative proximity of ports of embarkation and disembarkation.

Total documented embarkations: 7,878,500 captives

Percent of estimated embarkations: 63.3%


Show detail

Map 8: Major regions where captives disembarked, all years

The Caribbean and South America received 95 percent of the slaves arriving in the Americas. Some captives disembarked in Africa rather than the Americas because their trans-Atlantic voyage was diverted as a result of a slave rebellion or, during the era of suppression, because of capture by patrolling naval cruisers. Less than 4 percent disembarked in North America, and only just over 10,000 in Europe.

Total documented embarkations: 9,371,001 captives

Percent of estimated embarkations: 88.5%

Show detail

Map 9: Volume and direction of the trans-Atlantic slave trade from all African to all American regions

This map summarizes and combines the many different paths by which captives left Africa and reached the Americas. While there were strong connections between particular embarkation and disembarkation regions, it was also the case that captives from any of the major regions of Africa could disembark in almost any of the major regions of the Americas. Even captives leaving Southeast Africa, the region most remote from the Americas, could disembark in mainland North America, as well as the Caribbean and South America. The data in this map are based on estimates of the total slave trade rather than documented departures and arrivals.


ENSLAVEMENT, i.e., depriving a human being of his/her freedom and liberty to self-determination and of the right to live one’s own culture and worship one’s own GOD, is the worst bondage recorded in the annals of history.  This horrific and dreadful and heinous Holocaust involved Blacks out of Africa and their offspring who for over 300 years were Slaves to very much demanding White peoples and were denied their HUMAN RIGHTS.  Today their descendants are yet in captivity because they have not been given their FREEDOM and restitution for RESETTLEMENT.  This document confirms and verifies that many of these accursed Blacks are surprisingly anybody but whom we might have thought they were. 


Three slaves in chains


Three slaves in chains



Given all that has happened to Blacks who endured the SLAVE TRADE, the last thing one would believe today is that GOD’s Covenant and Chosen People were numbered among these Slaves taken from the continent of Africa.  Yet, this is the absolute GOD’s TRUTH proved with HIS WORD at the mouth of HIS Servant and Prophet Moses.


As you read the following pages, pay close attention to GOD’s curses upon the Black man:  Israelites from the seed of Shem, as well as Ham, both children of Noah, are the people who live in gross darkness and despair for turning to false gods after GOD had done so wonderfully by them.  Both groups were cursed for their widespread worship of false gods.  But the Israelite’s worship of the gods of the heathen, even false gods of their own, and disobedience to GOD’s Book of the Law and HIS Paths of Righteousness resulted in consequences that have lasted for well over 2,500 years, even since the days of Ezra and Nehemiah.  Thus, GOD’s Covenant People and Ham are the tail, and their enemies the head either rule over them or have left them a destitute peoples living in impoverishment and squalor resulting from GOD’s curse - the Slave Trade.


“And I will walk among you, and will be your God, and ye shall be my people. I am the LORD your God, which brought you forth out of the land of Egypt, that ye should not be their bondmen; and I have broken the bands of your yoke, and made you go upright. But if ye will not hearken unto me, and will not do all these commandments; And if ye shall despise my statutes, or if your soul abhor my judgments, so that ye will not do all my commandments, but that ye break my covenant:”   Leviticus 26:12 – 15


“And I will set my face against you, and ye shall be slain before your enemies: they that hate you shall reign over you; and ye shall flee when none pursueth you.And if ye will not yet for all this hearken unto me, then I will punish you seven times more for your sins.


And if ye walk contrary unto me, and will not hearken unto me; I will bring seven times more plagues upon you according to your sins.”   Leviticus 26:17,18,21


“And I will scatter you among the heathen, and will draw out a sword after you: and your land shall be desolate, and your cities waste. Then shall the land enjoy her sabbaths, as long as it lieth desolate, and ye be in your enemies' land; even then shall the land rest, and enjoy her sabbaths.”   Leviticus 26:33,34


If the GOD of Israel said HE would cast the Children of Israel from their Land of Israel and would scatter them among the heathen for their sins, then we well know the mindset of the peoples whose control we are now under and the status of this world order and its societies in which we have been placed to survive for the great sins of our forefathers.


“Son of man, thy brethren, even thy brethren, the men of thy kindred, and all the house of Israel wholly, are they unto whom the inhabitants of Jerusalem have said, Get you far from the LORD: unto us is this land given in possession.   Ezekiel 11:15


“And I will bring you out of the midst thereof, and deliver you into the hands of strangers, and will execute judgments among you. Ye shall fall by the sword; I will judge you in the border of Israel; and ye shall know that I am the LORD. This city shall not be your caldron, neither shall ye be the flesh in the midst thereof; but I will judge you in the border of Israel: And ye shall know that I am the LORD: for ye have not walked in my statutes, neither executed my judgments, but have done after the manners of the heathen that are round about you.”   Ezekiel 11:9 - 12


“The good man is perished out of the earth: and there is none upright among men: they all lie in wait for blood; they hunt every man his brother with a net. That they may do evil with both hands earnestly, the prince asketh, and the judge asketh for a reward; and the great man, he uttereth his mischievous desire: so they wrap it up. The best of them is as a brier: the most upright is sharper than a thorn hedge: the day of thy watchmen and thy visitation cometh; now shall be their perplexity.”   Micah 7:2 - 4


And as we now well understand, in a “word” this life could only be described as “Hell”, not just for descendents of Slaves but for the powers-that-be, as well.  Thus, we know now why this world is in turmoil and peril and savage despair and death and destruction.  Our enslavement, captivity, and oppression has been more than we can bear!


“Thy substance and thy treasures will I give to the spoil without price, and that for all thy sins, even in all thy borders. And I will make thee to pass with thine enemies into a land which thou knowest not: for a fire is kindled in mine anger, which shall burn upon you.”   Jeremiah 15:13,14


“The sin of Judah is written with a pen of iron, and with the point of a diamond: it is graven upon the table of their heart, and upon the horns of your altars; Whilst their children remember their altars and their groves by the green trees upon the high hills. O my mountain in the field, I will give thy substance and all thy treasures to the spoil, and thy high places for sin, throughout all thy borders. And thou, even thyself, shalt discontinue from thine heritage that I gave thee; and I will cause thee to serve thine enemies in the land which thou knowest not: for ye have kindled a fire in mine anger, which shall burn for ever.”   Jeremiah 17:1 - 4


And given the Slave Route out of Africa, the CREATOR GOD did exactly what HE Sid HE would!





“And they shall fall one upon another, as it were before a sword, when none pursueth: and ye shall have no power to stand before your enemies. And ye shall perish among the heathen, and the land of your enemies shall eat you up. And they that are left of you shall pine away in their iniquity in your enemies' lands; and also in the iniquities of their fathers shall they pine away with them.”   Leviticus 26:37 – 39


“They have moved me to jealousy with that which is not God; they have provoked me to anger with their vanities: and I will move them to jealousy with those which are not a people; I will provoke them to anger with a foolish nation.


I will heap mischiefs upon them; I will spend mine arrows upon them.


I said, I would scatter them into corners, I would make the remembrance of them to cease from among men:


O that they were wise, that they understood this, that they would consider their latter end!”   Deuteronomy 32:21,23,26,29


The Black man’s “latter end” of which Deuteronomy 28th Chapter writes, entails a harsh and bleak lifestyle of brutal servitude for Black Peoples.  This servitude started with gross deception by the powers-that-be and naiveté on the part of Blacks out of Africa that have lasted since the fifteenth century as told by some sources.  But how can people be so duped and for so long?  Surely, this pain, suffering, and affliction are all an ACT OF THE CREATOR GOD, after all, the CREATOR GOD is ALL MIGHTY; HE can cause things to happen, and HE can also prevent them from occurring!  But this CREATOR GOD did nothing to save the victims of the Slave Trade.  So, let’s look at another angle in order to see if we can understand what exactly happened to cause this world-wide bondage of Black peoples that enriched the welfare and prosperity of White peoples around the world.


Because of the CREATOR GOD’s Jealousy of the worship of all manner of gods other than HIMSELF, this horrific Slave Trade manifest, as well as a world of unhappiness and grief even among the White rich and famous who grew wealthy off the backs of Slaves.


How could Blacks have so wholeheartedly accepted the religion of the White man – welcoming this unfounded and unproved religion called Christianity with its belief in a “man”, nonetheless, rather than putting all hope and trust in the CREATOR?  How could Blacks believe that the people who treated them with such disdain and insane cruelty without remorse or guilt would reveal to them a “man-god” who would take them out of their enslavement and end the free labor and wealth these people were amassing off their blood, sweat, and tears?  The White man had a golden egg, and he was not about to give it up, as all will see from well documented Biblical and historical accounts.  These Blacks should have known that after being brainwashed to abandon their ethnicity and all knowledge of self for generations at the hands of ruthless Slavers and Christian missionaries who promised them a salvation that, unto this day, has eluded them, that there was no truth or goodness in their Slave Masters, their Christian religion, or in their justice system.  As they accepted and believed in this “man-god”, they continued to see the rape of their daughters and wives, watch their children be sold to other Slavers, endless separation of families, husbands going to one plantation and wives to another, and no answers to their prayers that would cause the daily heartache and sorrow their Masters and Mistresses laid upon them to cease.


How can people, especially Blacks, be duped by the White man and his religion for so long?  Let’s read and see if we can use Biblical history and man’s history to determine how all this madness came about.


“I, even I, am the LORD; and beside me there is no saviour.”

Isaiah 43:11


Already we can see a conflict with the White man’s “man-god”!



Some say that the European “Jews” who usurped the identity of the Israelites were the “Mother of All Slavers”.  If these Whites were to maintain this Jewish identity, then by all means they had to hide all evidence of the Black Hebrew Israelites being the true Children of Israel, and the best way to do that was to enslave them “forever”, which is exactly what they had attempted to do.


Slavery was essential to the New World mission of wealth building and therefore became the most lucrative enterprise of the times – nothing moved without Black labor.  The 1661 letter from the newly explored colony in Venezuela is our best insight:


            Negroes are required here…Do not regard this otherwise than it is written or as

            Anything but the honest truth, without exaggeration of hypocrisy and upon which

            You may rely.


Jews, as an elementary fact, participated in the process by which millions of African citizens were enslaved and murdered.  Jewish wealth and freedom established, they set their sights to the north.


…The Jews…were of the mercantile class with an entrepreneurial tradition and a worldwide network of commercial relationships.  The majority of these Jews were by no means poor and destitute “huddled masses,” but instead were highly skilled and savvy businessmen whose wealth on arrival far surpassed that of many other immigrants.  “As almost all the early Jewish settlers in America belonged to the wealthy classes,” writes historian Peter Wiernik, “it was natural for them to accept the institution of slavery as they found it, and to derive as much benefit from it as other affluent men.”


The earliest Jewish settlements were established in Newport, Rhode Island and New York where there were numerous Jewish slave holders long before and right through the American Revolution.  Jews adapted to the business climate of colonial North America and operated with the same skill they had demonstrated in the island regions to the south and accepted Black slavery without question.  In the North before 1800 and in the South all through the colonial period, slaves were stocked as commodities by Jewish merchants.  Countless thousands of Africans were brought here in colonial times as slaves by Jewish merchant-shippers and in the South, Jews began to enter the planter class in substantial numbers.


The New York- and Newport-area Jews had established a highly efficient trans-Atlantic shipping operation.  Jews who settled in North Africa with access into the African mainland arranged with African tribal traitors for the transport of Blacks to the Atlantic coast for sale to the New World merchant-shippers…Jewish historian Henry L. Feingold, in a fit of understatement, put it this way:  “The traffic in human beings by the Portuguese, Dutch, French and English was an essential ingredient of the early capital formation necessary for the development of the capitalist system, and Jews who were frequently found at the heart of commerce could not have failed to contribute to the []slave] trade directly or indirectly.


It should be made very plain at this point that even until the Civil War era, Jews as a community never interfered with the practice of slavery or registered any reservation about its dehumanizing effects.  When some colonies had proposed high tariffs on the importation of slaves, intending to discourage the slave trade, Jewish merchants, Joseph Marks, Samson Levy and David Franks protested, for they “were among those who wished to see the traffic continue.”  pp. 88 - 90


The above passages, as well as the following were taken from The Secret Relationship Between Blacks and Jews, published by The Nation of Islam but documented almost entirely by White Jews. 


A Jew Teaches Slave Religion


Once slavery was introduced into the colony it became essential to condition the Africans to the requirements of being slaves.  The case of Joseph Ottolenghe, a Jewish resident of Georgia, provides explicit evidence of the use of Christianity to pacify and subdue the Black African….   pp. 133


Aaron Hirsch (1829-1911) was a French Jew who settled in New Orleans and later became a resident of Mississippi and Arkansas.  He was a strong Confederate who expressed the Jewish sentiment of his time when in the 1860s he stated that:


                        the institution of slavery as it existed in the south was not so great a wrong as

people believe.  The Negroes were brought here in a savage state; they captured

and ate each other in their African home.  Here they were instructed to work,

were civilized and got religion, and were perfectly happy. 


Hirsch spoke in favor of slavery because the plantation owners were his customers.  He owned slaves and boutht and sold them in his Batesville, Arkansas business, Hirsch & Adler.  During the Civil War he bought six Blacks and later exchanged them for a farm.  He was against the proposal to free the slaves who had fought for the Confederacy, reason that the war was fought to keep them enslaved.   pp.  247


Eugene Henry Levy of New Orleans was an official in the Confederate Army who said:  “The slaves are in their proper sphere as they are at present situated within the boundaries of the Confederacy.”  The day before General Robert E. Lee surrendered, Levy was captured and soon released.  He made his post Civil War sentiments known when he declared that, “Negroes are among the masters and have the inclination to be tyrants.  The extermination of this race is a necessary consequence of this state of affairs.”  pp. 258, 259


Samuel Maas of Charleston, according to Professor Marcus, took


only four weeks to be convinced that blacks had to be watched, disciplined, and, if necessary ruthlessly punished.  Slavery he agreed, was a sound institution; the Southern economy was built on black labor.  The black made an ideal workhand, for only he, stemming from the torrid African lands, could tolerate the humidity, intense heat, and backbreaking laor of the Carolina lowlands.  Undoubtedly, Maas was influenced in his views by his uncle and by the luxury of the well-appointed home with its massive silver service and numerous, obsequious slaves ready to respond to his slightest nod – all this impressed Maas mightily.

pp. 269,270


Rabbi Morris Jacob Raphall of Congregation B’nai Jeshurun in New York was America’s most prominent rabbi.  He gave a sermon on January 4, 1861 which was used extensively by Jews and Christians in their defense of slavery.  Raphall said, in part:


                        …it remains a fact which cannot be gainsaid that in his own native home, and

Generally throughout the world, the unfortunate negro is indeed the meanest of slaves.  Much had been said respecting the inferiority of his intellectual powers, and that no man of his race has ever inscribed his name on the Parthenon of human excellence, either mental or moral.  pp. 293


Jacob Rodriguez Rivera (1717-1789) was the president of the Newport, Rhode Island’s Congregation Jeshuah Israel in 1760, notorious African slave dealer and was considered to be the second wealthiest Jew behind his son-in-law Aaron Lopez.  His diverse connections included work with the Monsantos of New Orleans as well as with Samuel Moses and Isaac, Elizer to outfit slave ships with leg irons and handcuffs and other hardware of bondage.  At his home he had twelve slaves serving six people.   pp. 293,294


Philip Sartorius (1830-1913); Between 1853 and 1857 he owned several slaves.  He once joined a posse of slave hunters in pursuit of a dozen Africans who had run from the Jeffries plantation in Jefferson county.  When they found the Blacks the 12 bloodhounds severely attacked them.  Sartorius claimed to be repulsed by the sight.  Pp. 295


David G. Seixas and partner Benjamin S. Spitzer owned three slaves; “a woman who cooked their meals and kept house for them, and two males who worked in their store.”  Seixas is reported to have smuggled Africans into the United States after the government ban on the importations of slaves.  pp. 297


Eleanor Cohen Seixas, the daughter of Philip Melvin Cohen of Charleston wrote in a diary about her resentment of the abolition of slavery:


             I believe deeply in the institution of slavery (and) regret deeply its being abolished.  I am accustomed to have them wait on me, and I dislike white servants very much.  pp. 297


Isaac Mayer Wise; The leader of the American Reform Movement viewed Blacks as “representing all that is debased and inferior in the hopeless barbarity and heathenism of six thousand years.”  He also said that “The Negro was never free; and his bondage in Africa was simply duplicated in a milder form when he was imported here.”  He considered abolitionists to be “fanatics,” “demagogues” and “demons of hatred and destruction,”


             …and habitual revolutionaries, who feed on excitement and delight in civil wars, German atheism coupled with American Puritanism who know of no limits to their fanaticism, visionary philanthropists and wicked preachers who have that religion which is most suitable to the congregations.


Wise’s biographer, James G. Heller, said of his subject, “Clearly the Abolitionists…were men whom he would detest and of whom he would disapprove with all the force of his soul.  In his opinion they degraded religion, used it as a tool, and proved themselves unscrupulous and intemperate.”  “Christian clergymen are the most violent abolitionists,” charged Rabbi Wise, and further accused Protestant priests of causing Jefferson Davis’ rebellion.  “The whole host of priests would rather see this country crushed and crippled than discard their fanaticism or give up the political influence.”


“Do you think the Israelites of the South must be your white slaves,” he asked, “as you in your naturalization laws treat the foreigner, placing him below the negro?”  The Secret Relationship Between Blacks and Jews, Volume One by The Nation of Islam pp. 307,308




As you continue to read this document, be aware that the wealth of the White Jews in no way correlates or identifies them with the horrors of the curses of THE SLAVE TRADE prophesied in Deuteronomy 28th Chapter that the CREATOR GOD of Israel put upon HIS People for forsaking HIM and for rejecting HIS Ways of Righteousness.


Now, see how each verse that follows can only identity the Children of Israel as being a Black Nation.  And more importantly, see that from these Hebrew Scriptures that the people who are so cursed endured the Black Holocaust, i.e., the Slave Trade.  Nevertheless, not all Blacks are of the SEED of Jacob, the father of the Twelve Tribes of Israel.  And those who are not are of the SEED of Ham and of the Canaanites who populated what is called “Africa” and Israel (the Land of Canaan). 


Keep in mind that the reason the GOD of Israel cursed HIS Chosen people into captivity and into exile throughout the world was because they rejected HIM and HIS LAW and worshipped false gods:


“Speak unto the children of Israel, and bid them that they make them fringes in the borders of their garments throughout their generations, and that they put upon the fringe of the borders a ribband of blue: And it shall be unto you for a fringe, that ye may look upon it, and remember all the commandments of the LORD, and do them; and that ye seek not after your own heart and your own eyes, after which ye use to go a whoring: That ye may remember, and do all my commandments, and be holy unto your God. I am the LORD your God, which brought you out of the land of Egypt, to be your God: I am the LORD your God.”   Numbers 15:38 – 41


“And thou shalt remember all the way which the LORD thy God led thee these forty years in the wilderness, to humble thee, and to prove thee, to know what was in thine heart, whether thou wouldest keep his commandments, or no. And he humbled thee, and suffered thee to hunger, and fed thee with manna, which thou knewest not, neither did thy fathers know; that he might make thee know that man doth not live by bread only, but by every word that proceedeth out of the mouth of the LORD doth man live.


Beware that thou forget not the LORD thy God, in not keeping his commandments, and his judgments, and his statutes, which I command thee this day:”   Deuteronomy 8:2,3,10,11


“Ye shall not do after all the things that we do here this day, every man whatsoever is right in his own eyes.”   Deuteronomy 12:8


“But thou shalt remember the LORD thy God: for it is he that giveth thee power to get wealth, that he may establish his covenant which he sware unto thy fathers, as it is this day. And it shall be, if thou do at all forget the LORD thy God, and walk after other gods, and serve them, and worship them, I testify against you this day that ye shall surely perish. As the nations which the LORD destroyeth before your face, so shall ye perish; because ye would not be obedient unto the voice of the LORD your God.”   Deuteronomy 8:18 - 20


“Take heed to yourselves, that your heart be not deceived, and ye turn aside, and serve other gods, and worship them; And then the LORD'S wrath be kindled against you, and he shut up the heaven, that there be no rain, and that the land yield not her fruit; and lest ye perish quickly from off the good land which the LORD giveth you.”   Deuteronomy 11:16,17


“And ye have seen their abominations, and their idols, wood and stone, silver and gold, which were among them:) Lest there should be among you man, or woman, or family, or tribe, whose heart turneth away this day from the LORD our God, to go and serve the gods of these nations; lest there should be among you a root that beareth gall and wormwood; And it come to pass, when he heareth the words of this curse, that he bless himself in his heart, saying, I shall have peace, though I walk in the imagination of mine heart, to add drunkenness to thirst: The LORD will not spare him, but then the anger of the LORD and his jealousy shall smoke against that man, and all the curses that are written in this book shall lie upon him, and the LORD shall blot out his name from under heaven. And the LORD shall separate him unto evil out of all the tribes of Israel, according to all the curses of the covenant that are written in this book of the law: So that the generation to come of your children that shall rise up after you, and the stranger that shall come from a far land, shall say, when they see the plagues of that land, and the sicknesses which the LORD hath laid upon it; And that the whole land thereof is brimstone, and salt, and burning, that it is not sown, nor beareth, nor any grass groweth therein, like the overthrow of Sodom, and Gomorrah, Admah, and Zeboim, which the LORD overthrew in his anger, and in his wrath: Even all nations shall say, Wherefore hath the LORD done thus unto this land? what meaneth the heat of this great anger? Then men shall say, Because they have forsaken the covenant of the LORD God of their fathers, which he made with them when he brought them forth out of the land of Egypt: For they went and served other gods, and worshipped them, gods whom they knew not, and whom he had not given unto them:”   Deuteronomy 29:17 – 26


“And the LORD rooted them out of their land in anger, and in wrath, and in great indignation, and cast them into another land, as it is this day.”   Deuteronomy 29:28


“For they are a nation void of counsel, neither is there any understanding in them. O that they were wise, that they understood this, that they would consider their latter end!”   Deuteronomy 32:28,29  


Few people will admit that those of us who are descendants of Slaves worship the god of our captors, and by the same token they know that this Christian god did nothing to save them out of this cruel and demeaning enslavement and not out of the racism, impoverishment, and daily troubles that ail Black peoples in captivity.  We can read GOD’s WORD on this HIS Judgment as well.





Few people know that because of the sins of the Children of Israel, Ten Tribes of Israel were taken into captivity by the Assyrians and are “beyond Damascus”, and the GOD of Israel has not allowed them to return unto this day. 


“And the children of Israel did secretly those things that were not right against the LORD their God, and they built them high places in all their cities, from the tower of the watchmen to the fenced city.


“In the ninth year of Hoshea the king of Assyria took Samaria, and carried Israel away into Assyria, and placed them in Halah and in Habor by the river of Gozan, and in the cities of the Medes.”   II Kings 17:6


And they set them up images and groves in every high hill, and under every green tree: And there they burnt incense in all the high places, as did the heathen whom the LORD carried away before them; and wrought wicked things to provoke the LORD to anger: For they served idols, whereof the LORD had said unto them, Ye shall not do this thing. Yet the LORD testified against Israel, and against Judah, by all the prophets, and by all the seers, saying, Turn ye from your evil ways, and keep my commandments and my statutes, according to all the law which I commanded your fathers, and which I sent to you by my servants the prophets. Notwithstanding they would not hear, but hardened their necks, like to the neck of their fathers, that did not believe in the LORD their God. And they rejected his statutes, and his covenant that he made with their fathers, and his testimonies which he testified against them; and they followed vanity, and became vain, and went after the heathen that were round about them, concerning whom the LORD had charged them, that they should not do like them. And they left all the commandments of the LORD their God, and made them molten images, even two calves, and made a grove, and worshipped all the host of heaven, and served Baal. And they caused their sons and their daughters to pass through the fire, and used divination and enchantments, and sold themselves to do evil in the sight of the LORD, to provoke him to anger.”   II Kings 17:9 - 17


“Therefore the LORD was very angry with Israel, and removed them out of his sight: there was none left but the tribe of Judah only.”   II Kings 17:18


“Have ye offered unto me sacrifices and offerings in the wilderness forty years, O house of Israel? But ye have borne the tabernacle of your Moloch and Chiun your images, the star of your god, which ye made to yourselves. Therefore will I cause you to go into captivity beyond Damascus, saith the LORD, whose name is The God of hosts.”   Amos 5:25 – 27


This is just another reason why the Europeans who usurped the Land of Israel cannot be the SEED of the Biblical Israelites. 


The Tribe of Judah (and Remnants of the other Tribes) learned nothing from GOD’s HAND in casting out the Ten Tribes for their transgressions.  It was the Babylonians who took Judah to their land and held them captive for seventy (70) years, and afterwards (as it was prophesied) the GOD of Israel would allow them to return to the Land of Israel. 


“The word that came to Jeremiah concerning all the Jews which dwell in the land of Egypt, which dwell at Migdol, and at Tahpanhes, and at Noph, and in the country of Pathros, saying, Thus saith the LORD of hosts, the God of Israel; Ye have seen all the evil that I have brought upon Jerusalem, and upon all the cities of Judah; and, behold, this day they are a desolation, and no man dwelleth therein, Because of their wickedness which they have committed to provoke me to anger, in that they went to burn incense, and to serve other gods, whom they knew not, neither they, ye, nor your fathers. Howbeit I sent unto you all my servants the prophets, rising early and sending them, saying, Oh, do not this abominable thing that I hate. But they hearkened not, nor inclined their ear to turn from their wickedness, to burn no incense unto other gods. Wherefore my fury and mine anger was poured forth, and was kindled in the cities of Judah and in the streets of Jerusalem; and they are wasted and desolate, as at this day. Therefore now thus saith the LORD, the God of hosts, the God of Israel; Wherefore commit ye this great evil against your souls, to cut off from you man and woman, child and suckling, out of Judah, to leave you none to remain; In that ye provoke me unto wrath with the works of your hands, burning incense unto other gods in the land of Egypt, whither ye be gone to dwell, that ye might cut yourselves off, and that ye might be a curse and a reproach among all the nations of the earth?   Jeremiah 44:1 - 8


“The word that came to Jeremiah concerning all the people of Judah in the fourth year of Jehoiakim the son of Josiah king of Judah, that was the first year of Nebuchadrezzar king of Babylon; The which Jeremiah the prophet spake unto all the people of Judah, and to all the inhabitants of Jerusalem, saying, From the thirteenth year of Josiah the son of Amon king of Judah, even unto this day, that is the three and twentieth year, the word of the LORD hath come unto me, and I have spoken unto you, rising early and speaking; but ye have not hearkened. And the LORD hath sent unto you all his servants the prophets, rising early and sending them; but ye have not hearkened, nor inclined your ear to hear. They said, Turn ye again now every one from his evil way, and from the evil of your doings, and dwell in the land that the LORD hath given unto you and to your fathers for ever and ever: And go not after other gods to serve them, and to worship them, and provoke me not to anger with the works of your hands; and I will do you no hurt. Yet ye have not hearkened unto me, saith the LORD; that ye might provoke me to anger with the works of your hands to your own hurt. Therefore thus saith the LORD of hosts; Because ye have not heard my words, Behold, I will send and take all the families of the north, saith the LORD, and Nebuchadrezzar the king of Babylon, my servant, and will bring them against this land, and against the inhabitants thereof, and against all these nations round about, and will utterly destroy them, and make them an astonishment, and an hissing, and perpetual desolations.  Moreover I will take from them the voice of mirth, and the voice of gladness, the voice of the bridegroom, and the voice of the bride, the sound of the millstones, and the light of the candle. And this whole land shall be a desolation, and an astonishment; and these nations shall serve the king of Babylon seventy years.”    Jeremiah 25:1 - 8


Unfortunately, upon their return back into the Land of Israel, the Judahites still would not serve and worship only the GOD of Israel, serve HIM, and walk in HIS Paths of Righteousness, and consequently, they, too were scattered from HIS Land. 


On many occasions the Judahites fled into Egypt out of fear of the Babylonians, out of fear of their brothers, and even out of fear of fighting and/or famine in the Land of Israel.  Ultimately, when the Grecians (White “Jews”) took control of GOD’s Land, after the days of Ezra and Nehemiah, the Judahites that were left made their final escape into Egypt.


“I will also gather all nations, and will bring them down into the valley of Jehoshaphat, and will plead with them there for my people and for my heritage Israel, whom they have scattered among the nations, and parted my land.


And they have cast lots for my people; and have given a boy for an harlot, and sold a girl for wine, that they might drink.


The children also of Judah and the children of Jerusalem have ye sold unto the Grecians, that ye might remove them far from their border.”   Joel 3:2,3,6


Many of these Israelites who fled into Egypt could not remain due to constant warring of the peoples of Ham, and they continued on seeking refuge in other areas in “Africa”.  Eventually, at the time of the Slave Trade and in order that GOD’s WORD would be fulfilled in Deuteronomy 28th Chapter, the Israelites who dwelt in “Africa” were also captured and shackled and taken naked bearing yokes upon their necks aboard Slave Ships.  Men, women, and children suffered the Slave Trade all because of disobedience to their GOD of Israel.


“For the people turneth not unto him that smiteth them, neither do they seek the LORD of hosts. Therefore the LORD will cut off from Israel head and tail, branch and rush, in one day.”   Isaiah 9:13,14


In vain have I smitten your children; they received no correction: your own sword hath devoured your prophets, like a destroying lion. O generation, see ye the word of the LORD. Have I been a wilderness unto Israel? a land of darkness? wherefore say my people, We are lords; we will come no more unto thee? Can a maid forget her ornaments, or a bride her attire? yet my people have forgotten me days without number.”   Jeremiah 2:30 - 32


“Then said the LORD unto me, Though Moses and Samuel stood before me, yet my mind could not be toward this people: cast them out of my sight, and let them go forth. And it shall come to pass, if they say unto thee, Whither shall we go forth? then thou shalt tell them, Thus saith the LORD; Such as are for death, to death; and such as are for the sword, to the sword; and such as are for the famine, to the famine; and such as are for the captivity, to the captivity. And I will appoint over them four kinds, saith the LORD: the sword to slay, and the dogs to tear, and the fowls of the heaven, and the beasts of the earth, to devour and destroy. And I will cause them to be removed into all kingdoms of the earth, because of Manasseh the son of Hezekiah king of Judah, for thatwhich he did in Jerusalem. For who shall have pity upon thee, O Jerusalem? or who shall bemoan thee? or who shall go aside to ask how thou doest? Thou hast forsaken me, saith the LORD, thou art gone backward: therefore will I stretch out my hand against thee, and destroy thee; I am weary with repenting. And I will fan them with a fan in the gates of the land; I will bereave them of children, I will destroy my people, since they return not from their ways.”   Jeremiah 15:1 – 7


“Because my people hath forgotten me, they have burned incense to vanity, and they have caused them to stumble in their ways from the ancient paths, to walk in paths, in a way not cast up; To make their land desolate, and a perpetual hissing; every one that passeth thereby shall be astonished, and wag his head. I will scatter them as with an east wind before the enemy; I will shew them the back, and not the face, in the day of their calamity.”   Jeremiah 18:15 - 17











But if ye shall at all turn from following me, ye or your children,

and will not keep my commandments and my statutes which I have set before you,

but go and serve other gods, and worship them:

Then will I cut off Israel out of the land which I have given them; and this house,

which I have hallowed for my name, will I cast out of my sight;

and Israel shall be a proverb and a byword among all people: And at this house,

which is high, every one that passeth by it shall be astonished, and shall hiss;

and they shall say, Why hath the LORD done thus unto this land, and to this house?

And they shall answer, Because they forsook the LORD their God,

who brought forth their fathers out of the land of Egypt, and have taken hold upon other gods,

and have worshipped them, and served them:

therefore hath the LORD brought upon them all this evil.”

I Kings 9:6 – 9


“But where are thy gods that thou hast made thee?

let them arise, if they can save thee in the time of thy trouble:

for according to the number of thy cities are thy gods, O Judah.”

Jeremiah 2:28


“And he said, I will hide my face from them, I will see what their end shall be:

for they are a very froward generation, children in whom is no faith.

They have moved me to jealousy with that which is not God;

they have provoked me to anger with their vanities:

and I will move them to jealousy with those which are not a people;

I will provoke them to anger with a foolish nation.”

Deuteronomy 32:20,21


“I will go and return to my place, till they acknowledge their offence,

and seek my face:

in their affliction they will seek me early.”

Hosea 5:15


Black peoples and all the world are now in great despair, and it is up to not only the Children of Israel to seek the True and Living CREATOR GOD to end the perils of Hell upon them, but it also behooves every single human being to seek this GOD and HIS Truth, now before it is too late.


The CREATOR GOD has demonstrated HIS most severe Judgments upon HIS Covenant People who chose to worship false gods.  Read them and be the wiser!  Human beings are the Creation of the CREATOR, and must, therefore, fulfill HIS Command to live according to HIS Ways of Righteousness.  When mankind is disobedient and follows his own ways, then he quickly learns that his preferences and religious inventions lead to utter hopelessness, mourning, evil, and wickedness that foul the CREATOR’s GOOD Earth and HIS perfect plans for Righteousness.


“I form the light, and create darkness: I make peace, and create evil:

I the LORD do all these things.


Drop down, ye heavens, from above, and let the skies pour down righteousness:

let the earth open,

and let them bring forth salvation, and let righteousness spring up together;

I the LORD have created it.”

Isaiah 45:8


“After the doings of the land of Egypt, wherein ye dwelt, shall ye not do: and after the doings of the land of Canaan, whither I bring you, shall ye not do: neither shall ye walk in their ordinances.”   Leviticus 18:3


“Ye shall do my judgments, and keep mine ordinances, to walk therein: I am the LORD your God. Ye shall therefore keep my statutes, and my judgments: which if a man do, he shall live in them: I am the LORD.


“Defile not ye yourselves in any of these things: for in all these the nations are defiled which I cast out before you:


Ye shall therefore keep my statutes and my judgments, and shall not commit any of these abominations; neither any of your own nation, nor any stranger that sojourneth among you:


”Therefore shall ye keep mine ordinance, that ye commit not any one of these abominable customs, which were committed before you, and that ye defile not yourselves therein: I am the LORD your God.”   Leviticus 18:4,5,24,26,30


“Ye shall not do after all the things that we do here this day, every man whatsoever is right in his own eyes.”   Deuteronomy 12:8


“Hear ye the word which the LORD speaketh unto you, O house of Israel: Thus saith the LORD, Learn not the way of the heathen, and be not dismayed at the signs of heaven; for the heathen are dismayed at them. For the customs of the people are vain: for one cutteth a tree out of the forest, the work of the hands of the workman, with the axe. They deck it with silver and with gold; they fasten it with nails and with hammers, that it move not. They are upright as the palm tree, but speak not: they must needs be borne, because they cannot go. Be not afraid of them; for they cannot do evil, neither also is it in them to do good.”   Jeremiah 10:1 - 5


The curses in Deuteronomy 28th Chapter only befell Black peoples:  the Children of Israel and the original inhabitants of the lands of Ham, better known as “Africa”.





















An illustration of the slave trade


Unesco wants to encourage teaching about slavery

By Stephen Evans
BBC North America Business Correspondent


“And it shall come to pass, when thou shalt shew this people all these words,

and they shall say unto thee, Wherefore hath the LORD pronounced all this great evil against us?

what is our iniquity? or what is our sin that we have committed against the LORD our God?

Then shalt thou say unto them, Because your fathers have forsaken me, saith the LORD,

and have walked after other gods, and have served them, and have worshipped them,

and have forsaken me, and have not kept my law; And ye have done worse than your fathers;

for, behold, ye walk every one after the imagination of his evil heart, that they may not hearken unto me: Therefore will I cast you out of this land into a land that ye know not,

neither ye nor your fathers;

and there shall ye serve other gods day and night; where I will not shew you favour.”

Jeremiah 16:10 - 13


“How doth the city sit solitary, that was full of people! how is she become as a widow!

she that was great among the nations, and princess among the provinces,

how is she become tributary! She weepeth sore in the night, and her tears are on her cheeks:

among all her lovers she hath none to comfort her:

all her friends have dealt treacherously with her,

they are become her enemies. Judah is gone into captivity because of affliction,

and because of great servitude: she dwelleth among the heathen,

she findeth no rest: all her persecutors overtook her between the straits.”

Lamentation 1:1 - 3


Is it nothing to you, all ye that pass by? behold,

and see if there be any sorrow like unto my sorrow, which is done unto me,

wherewith the LORD hath afflicted me in the day of his fierce anger.

From above hath he sent fire into my bones, and it prevaileth against them:

he hath spread a net for my feet, he hath turned me back:

he hath made me desolate and faint all the day.

The yoke of my transgressions is bound by his hand:

they are wreathed, and come up upon my neck: he hath made my strength to fall,

 the Lord hath delivered me into their hands, from whom I am not able to rise up.”

Lamentation 1:12 -14


“I was wroth with my people, I have polluted mine inheritance,

and given them into thine hand: thou didst shew them no mercy;

upon the ancient hast thou very heavily laid thy yoke.”

Isaiah 47:6


“They have taken crafty counsel against thy people, and consulted against thy hidden ones. They have said, Come, and let us cut them off from being a nation; that the name of Israel may be no more in remembrance. For they have consulted together with one consent: they are confederate against thee:”   Psalm 83:3 – 5


“Who said, Let us take to ourselves the houses of God in possession.”   Psalm 83:12




Images of African Slavery and the Slave Trade



This gallery of Images of African Slavery and the Slave Trade includes pictures of indigenous and European slave trade, capture, transportation to the coast, slave pens, inspection by European merchants and ship's captains, slaving ships, and scenes from the Middle Passage.

Images 1-12 of 14

Enter Gallery




Indigenous African SlaveryIndigenous African Slavery

A Slaver's CanoeA Slaver's Canoe

African Captives Being Sent Into SlaveryAfrican Captives Being Sent Into Slavery

Indigenous African Slavers Traveling From the InteriorIndigenous African Slavers Traveling From the Interior

Cape Coast Castle, Gold CoastCape Coast Castle, Gold Coast

A Slave BarracoonA Slave Barracoon

Female East African SlaveFemale East African Slave

Young African Boys Captured for Slave TradeYoung African Boys Captured for Slave Trade

Inspection of an African SlaveInspection of an African Slave

Testing an African Slave For SicknessTesting an African Slave For Sickness

Diagram of the Slave Ship BrookesDiagram of the Slave Ship Brookes

Plans of Slave Decks, Slave Ship BrookesPlans of Slave Decks, Slave Ship Brookes

·                     Graphic Index

·                     Text Index





African History: Slavery Images

A Gallery of Images of African Slavery and the Slave Trade ... painting showing
slaves yoked together at the neck, being driven by black slave traders. ... 132
slaves were thrown overboard from the ship Zong after disease broke out. ... - 20k


Images of African Slavery and the Slave Trade

















DEUTERONOMY 28:15 - 68


Deu. 28:15 But it shall come to pass, if thou wilt not hearken unto the voice of the LORD thy God, to observe to do all his commandments and his statutes which I command thee this day; that all these curses shall come upon thee, and overtake thee:



Deu. 28:19 Cursed shalt thou be when thou comest in, and cursed shalt thou be when thou goest out. The LORD shall send upon thee cursing, vexation, and rebuke, in all that thou settest thine hand unto for to do, until thou be destroyed, and until thou perish quickly; because of the wickedness of thy doings, whereby thou hast forsaken me. The LORD shall make the pestilence cleave unto thee, until he have consumed thee from off the land, whither thou goest to possess it.


“For they have not served thee in their kingdom, and in thy great goodness that thou gavest them, and in the large and fat land which thou gavest before them, neither turned they from their wicked works. Behold, we are servants this day, and for the land that thou gavest unto our fathers to eat the fruit thereof and the good thereof, behold, we are servants in it: And it yieldeth much increase unto the kings whom thou hast set over us because of our sins: also they have dominion over our bodies, and over our cattle, at their pleasure, and we are in great distress.”   Nehemiah 9:35 – 37




The children also of Judah and the children of Jerusalem have ye sold unto the Grecians, that ye might remove them far from their border.   Joel 3:6


“Ah sinful nation, a people laden with iniquity, a seed of evildoers, children that are corrupters: they have forsaken the LORD, they have provoked the Holy One of Israel unto anger, they are gone away backward. Why should ye be stricken any more? ye will revolt more and more: the whole head is sick, and the whole heart faint.


Your country is desolate, your cities are burned with fire: your land, strangers devour it in your presence, and it is desolate, as overthrown by strangers.”   Isaiah 1:4,5,7


“They sacrifice flesh for the sacrifices of mine offerings, and eat it; but the LORD accepteth them not; now will he remember their iniquity, and visit their sins: they shall return to Egypt.”   Hosea 8:13



Deu. 28:28:25 The LORD shall cause thee to be smitten before thine enemies: thou shalt go out one way against them, and flee seven ways before them: and shalt be removed into all the kingdoms of the earth.




African Captives Being Sent Into Slavery

Source: Library of Congress (cph 3a29129)

This engraving entitled Tipo [sic] Tib's Fresh Captives Being Sent Into Bondage – Witnessed by Stanley records part of Henry Morton Stanley's journeys through Africa. Stanley also hired porters from Tippu Tib, a man considered the king of Zanzibar Slave Traders.







Indigenous African Slavers Traveling From the Interior

Source: "Voyage à la Côte Occidentale d'Afrique" by Louis Degrandpré, Paris 1801

Indigenous African slavers from coastal regions would travel far into the interior to obtain slaves. They were generally better armed, having obtained guns from European merchants in trade for slaves. Slaves are yoked with a forked branch and fixed in place with an iron pin across the back of their necks. The slightest tug on the branch could choke the prisoner.




A Slave Barracoon



Prisoners could be held in slave sheds, or barracoons, for several months whilst awaiting the arrival of European merchants.
Slaves are shown hobbled to roughly hewn logs (on left) or in stocks (on right). Slaves would be fastened to the roof supports by rope, attached around their necks or interweaved into their hair.


“Israel is swallowed up: now shall they be among the Gentiles as a vessel wherein is no pleasure. For they are gone up to Assyria, a wild ass alone by himself: Ephraim hath hired lovers.”   Hosea 8:8,9


“The children also of Judah and the children of Jerusalem have ye sold unto the Grecians, that ye might remove them far from their border.”   Joel 3:6


“For thy violence against thy brother Jacob shame shall cover thee, and thou shalt be cut off for ever. In the day that thou stoodest on the other side, in the day that the strangers carried away captive his forces, and foreigners entered into his gates, and cast lots upon Jerusalem, even thou wast as one of them.”   Obadiah 1:10,11 




Gordon: Runaway Slave Turned Union Soldier

This original 1863 leaf presents the incredible story and pictures of the Runaway Slave Gordon.  The leaf describes Gordon's amazing story.  Gordon escaped slavery in Mississippi.  The leaf describes how Gordon escaped captivity by rubbing himself with onions, to foil the plantation owner's hounds, which had been sent to track Gordon down.  Gordon effectively made it to Union forces stationed at Baton Rouge.  The picture at the left shows Gordon in tattered clothes, showing the poor shape he was in upon finding refuge with the Union army.  The center illustration shows Gordon's back, scared from endless brutal whippings at his master's hand.  The third illustration shows Gordon in Union uniform, after joining the Union Army.  The story surrounding the images gives an incredible account of Gordon's escape and induction into the Army.

Slavery Pictures email me, and I will put it up for you to see. I eventually hope to have my entire collection up for friends to view, but it takes time. Click Here for Even More Slavery Pictures




Stock Photo - the selling and 
branding of slaves 
before being put 
aboard a ship. 
fotosearch - search 
stock photos, 
pictures, wall 
murals, images, 
and photo clipart

Stock Photo - The selling and branding of slaves before being put aboard a ship, 1965

Stock Photography and Stock Footage

The World's Stock Photography - One Website




.. Arise! Arise ! shake off your chains!

Your cause is just, so Heaven ordains;



The unwise regulations of the trustees of Georgia, which crushed incentives to industry and thrift, and other causes which exist in all new settlements, made that colony languish. The settlers saw the prosperity of their neighbors in South Carolina, and attributed the difference to the positive prohibition of slavery in Georgia. This became their leading grievance, and even Whitefield advocated the introduction of slavery, under the old (and later) pretence of propagating, in that way, Christianity among the heathen Africans. Habersham, too, advocated the introduction. "Many of the poor slaves in America," he wrote, "have already been made freemen of the heavenly Jerusalem." The Germans were assured by their friends in Germany of its harmlessness. Word came to them in 1749: "If you take slaves in faith and with the intent of conducting them to Christ, the action will not be a sin, but may prove a benediction." So it was that avarice subdued conscience. Already slaves had been introduced into Georgia from South Carolina as hired servants, under indentures for life, or for ninety-nine years; and at Savannah the continual toast was, "The one thing needful," which meant negro slaves. Leading men among the Scotch and Germans who opposed the introduction of slavery were threatened and persecuted. Under great pressure, the trustees yielded, and slavery was introduced on the condition that all masters should be obliged to compel the negroes to "attend, at some time on the Lord's day, for instruction in the Christian religion." In 1752 the charter was surrendered to the crown, the colony had all the privileges accorded to others, and flourished.

New Orleans Slave Auction

A Slave Auction in New Orleans

To completely enslave the English-American colonies, the British Parliament, in 1750, gave liberty to trade in negroes, as slaves, to and from any part of Africa between Sallee, in South Barbary, and the Cape of Good Hope, to all the subjects of the King of England. This was designed to fill the colonies with slaves, who should neither trouble Great Britain with fears of encouraging political independence nor compete with their industry with British workshops; neither would they leave their employers the entire security that might enable them to prepare a revolt.

History of Slavery



Deu. 28:29 And thou shalt grope at noonday, as the blind gropeth in darkness, and thou shalt not prosper in thy ways: and thou shalt be only oppressed and spoiled evermore, and no man shall save thee.



A close examination of financial data reveals why whites have been so adamant about keeping blacks as a permanent underclass of laborers.  The world saw Blacks and their labor as sources of wealth – black gold.


England was the king of slave trading nations.  Not only was it the dominant slave trader, but was also the primary beneficiary of wealth produced by slaves in the Americas and Caribbean islands.  …the English system was the harshest and undoubtedly the most profitable of the six major slave trading nations.  For example, by 1795, Liverpool, England alone had more than 100 ships carrying slaves.  This fleet of ships accounted for 50 percent of Europe’s slave trade….pp. 132


             New England, the home of the Quakers and antislavery forces, had three times as many textile mills as the entire South.  These mills manufactured, process, retailed, and generally thrived off of slavery-produced cotton.  The first cotton mill in the U.S. was built at Beverly, Massachusetts, around 1808.  By 1817, slaves were annually producing more than 126 million pounds of cotton that had a value of approximately $15 million, for processing in Northern textile mills alone…By 1850, more than 1,000 cotton factories operated in the United States.  Northern mills processed on-quarter of all slave-produced cotton.  This cotton provided clothes, fabric, jobs, income, wealth, taxes, and other benefits to populations throughout the North.  So while Northern antislavery forces opposed slavery on moral grounds, it was apparent from the kinds of business that were supporting the Northern economy that nearly every Northerner benefited from slavery…


The high economic value of exploiting black labor would not let slavery die a timely death.  Many Southern slave holders cautioned Northern abolitionists and businessmen not to hurt their own business opportunities by advocating freedom for blacks.  For example, in 1787, John Rutledge of South Carolina argue that it was counterproductive for the Northern states to oppose slavery because they would benefit by transporting the products of slave labor.  In subsequent years, as Rutledge predicted, Norther shipbuilders amassed fortunes building commercial vessels that hauled slaves and durable goods to the Caribbean islands, European and other ports around the world.  Black Labor, White Wealth, by Claud Anderson, Ed.D. pps. 136,137



A Slaver's Canoe

Source: "Boy Travelers on the Congo" by Thomas W Knox, New York 1871

Slavers were often transported considerable distances down river (in this case the Congo) to be sold to Europeans.



Deu. 28:32,33 Thy sons and thy daughters shall be given unto another people, and thine eyes shall look, and fail with longing for them all the day long: and there shall be no might in thine hand. The fruit of thy land, and all thy labours, shall a nation which thou knowest not eat up; and thou shalt be only oppressed and crushed alway:





Slavery in America

Slavery in America began when the first African slaves were brought to the North American colony of Jamestown, Virginia in 1619, to aid in the production of such lucrative crops as tobacco. Slavery was practiced throughout the American colonies in the 17th and 18th centuries, and African-American slaves helped build the economic foundations of the new nation. The invention of the cotton gin in 1793 solidified the central importance of slavery to the South's economy. By the mid-19th century, America's westward expansion, along with a growing abolition movement in the North, would provoke a great debate over slavery that would tear the nation apart in the bloody American Civil War (1861-65). Though the Union victory freed the nation's 4 million slaves, the legacy of slavery continued to influence American history, from the tumultuous years of Reconstruction (1865-77) to the civil rights movement that emerged in the 1960s, a century after emancipation.

More to Explore:

People and Groups



Related Topics

Slavery in America — Articles, Video, Pictures and Facts



Southern Slave Town

Scene in a Southern Slave Town

History of Slavery



This is how John Davis became a slave:

He was walking one evening from the train depot in Goodwater, Ala., when a white man appeared in the road. "Nigger," he demanded, "have you got any money?"

The white man, Robert Franklin, was a constable. He claimed Davis owed him. This was news to Davis.

"I don't owe you anything," he said.

But what Davis said did not matter. He was arrested that night and summarily convicted. A wealthy landowner, John Pace, paid the alleged $40 debt and a $35 fine in exchange for Davis' mark -- Davis was illiterate -- on a contract binding him to work 10 months at any task Pace demanded. For all intents and purposes, the one man now owned the other. For all intents and purposes, John Davis was John Pace's slave.

This was September 1901 -- 36 years after the end of the Civil War.

It would be appalling if it happened once. Douglas Blackmon says it happened hundreds of thousands of times in Alabama alone. Blackmon, Atlanta bureau chief for The Wall Street Journal, is the author of a compelling new book, Slavery By Another Name. Yours truly flatters himself that he is well versed in African-American history, but this book introduced me to a chapter of that history I did not know.

I didn't know, for example, about the so-called "convict leasing system" of the South, wherein poor black men were routinely snatched up and tried on false, petty or nonexistent charges by compliant courts, assessed some fine they could not afford and then "sold" for the cost of that fine to some mine, turpentine farm or plantation, the money going back to the judges and sheriffs.









Deu. 28:36 The LORD shall bring thee, and thy king which thou shalt set over thee, unto a nation which neither thou nor thy fathers have known; and there shalt thou serve other gods, wood and stone."


Why there are no records of Jesus Christ


It is not possible to find in any legitimate religious or historical writings compiled between the beginning of the first century and well into the fourth century any reference to Jesus Christ and the spectacular events that the Church says accompanied his life. This confirmation comes from Frederic Farrar (1831-1903) of Trinity College, Cambridge:


"It is amazing that history has not embalmed for us even one certain or definite saying or circumstance in the life of the Saviour of mankind ... there is no statement in all history that says anyone saw Jesus or talked with him. Nothing in history is more astonishing than the silence of contemporary writers about events relayed in the four Gospels."  (The Life of Christ, Frederic W. Farrar, Cassell, London, 1874)


This situation arises from a conflict between history and New Testament narratives. Dr Tischendorf made this comment:


"We must frankly admit that we have no source of information with respect to the life of Jesus Christ other than ecclesiastic writings assembled during the fourth century."  (Codex Sinaiticus, Dr Constantin von Tischendorf, British Library, London)


There is an explanation for those hundreds of years of silence: the construct of Christianity did not begin until after the first quarter of the fourth century, and that is why Pope Leo X (d. 1521) called Christ a "fable" (Cardinal Bembo: His Letters..., op. cit.).


Please read the entire article located in the Appendix.





Governor Berkeley of Virginia estimated that more than 2,000 slaves were in the colony.


A Maryland act extending the scope of the slavery law passed in 1664 declared that conversion or baptism of slaves before or after their importation did not entitle them to freedom.  The act was passed to quell fears of slave owners who hesitated to import slaves for fear of losing their investment through prior or subsequent conversion, and also to encourage slave owners to convert their slaves to Christianity…





The most conscientious efforts to improve conditions among the slaves were made by the Quakers.  George Fox urged owners of slaves to give religious instruction to them.  In this year William Penn established a monthly meeting for Negroes.





In England, Rev. Thomas Bray, a former representative of the Bishop of London in Maryland, founded the Anglican Society for Promoting Christian Knowledge, better known as the Society for the Propagation of the Gospel.  Its purposes were “the care and instruction of our people settled in the colonies; the conversion of the Indian savages and the conversion of the Negroes.”  The society was later incorporated into Dr. Bray’s Associates.




The French and the Spanish colonists supported education of the Negroes insofar as it was needed to convert them to Christianity…


The Chronological History of the Negro in America, by Peter M. Bergman




At the beginning of the transatlantic slave trade, African religious beliefs and practices were numerous and varied. In addition to a wide variety of polytheistic religions, a significant portion of the continent had for centuries fallen under Islamic influence. Despite this diversity, there were some common threads across cultural groups. For instance, West African societies, the largest source for American slaves, shared a belief in a Supreme Creator, a chief deity among lesser gods, to whom they prayed and made sacrifices. Through laws and customs honoring the gods, the ancestors of one's people, and the elderly, West Africans sought a harmonious balance between the natural and spiritual worlds. Further, they made music and dance vital components of their worship practices. Enslaved men and women kept the rites, rituals, and cosmologies of Africa alive in America through stories, healing arts, song, and other forms of cultural expression, creating a spiritual space apart from the white European world.

Africans and African descendents working in the early modern Atlantic commercial system were exposed to the world of European Christianity as early as the fifteenth century, when Portuguese missionaries came to the coasts. In 1667 Virginia passed a law declaring that conversion did not change the status of a person from slave to free. Other colonies passed similar laws during the seventeenth and early eighteenth of Africa. Some slaves, therefore, brought Christian beliefs with them when they were thrust into slavery. Others converted in America. During the seventeenth century blacks in the Dutch New Netherlands and Spanish Florida baptized their children and were married by the church. In part, this participation in the dominant European religion reflected (and helped to bring about) a colonial society in which blacks were more fully integrated and enjoyed greater rights than later generations of slaves would.



"Doop-Boeck" -- BAPTISMS FROM 1639 TO 1697 IN THE REFORMED DUTCH CHURCH, New York. Archives of the Collegiate Church of the City of New York.





However, slaves also saw conversion to Christianity as a road to freedom. In the early years of settlement, for instance, fugitive slaves from South Carolina, headed for Florida, where the Spanish Crown promised them freedom as a reward for conversion. Slaveholders in the British North American colonies became increasingly fearful that Christianization of slaves would lead to demands for emancipation centuries. 

During the early eighteenth century Anglican missionaries attempting to bring Christianity to slaves in the Southern colonies often found themselves butting up against not only uncooperative masters, but also resistant slaves. An unquestionable obstacle to the acceptance of Christianity among slaves was their desire to continue to adhere as much as possible to the religious beliefs and rituals of their African ancestors. Missionaries working in the South were especially displeased with slave retention of African practices such as polygamy and what they called idolatrous dancing. In fact, even blacks who embraced Christianity in America did not completely abandon Old World religion. Instead, they engaged in syncretism, blending Christian influences with traditional African rites and beliefs.


Symbols and objects, such as crosses, were conflated with charms carried by Africans to ward off evil spirits. Christ was interpreted as a healer similar to the priests of Africa. In the New World, fusions of African spirituality and Christianity led to distinct new practices among slave populations, including voodoo or vodun in Haiti and Spanish Louisiana. Although African religious influences were also important among Northern blacks, exposure to Old World religions was more intense in the South, where the density of the black population was greater.


Kimberly Sambol-Tosco






Inspection of an African SlaveSource: "Captain Canot: Twenty Years of an African Slaver" by Brantz Mayer (ed.), New York 1854

This engraving, entitled An African man being inspected for sale into slavery while a white man talks with African slave traders, appeared in the detailed account of a former slave ship captain, Theodore Canot - Captain Canot: Twenty Years of an African Slaver, edited by Brantz Mayer and published in New York in 1854.




Testing an African Slave For SicknessSource: "Le commerce de l'Amerique par Marseille", engraving by Serge Daget, Paris 1725

From an engraving entitled An Englishman Tastes the Sweat of an African, numbered from right to left the image shows Africans displayed for sale in a public market, an African being examined before purchase, an Englishman licking sweat from the African's chin to test whether he is sick with a tropical disease (a sick slave would quickly infect the rest of the 'human cargo' on a tightly packed slave ship), and an African slave wearing an iron slave marker.

Cape Coast Castle, Gold Coast



by William Smith, London 1749

The Europeans built several castles and forts, along the coast of West Africa – Elmina, Cape Coast, etc.. These fortresses, otherwise known as 'factories', were the first permanent trading stations built by Europeans in Africa.




Public Sale of Negroes,



     On Tuesday, March 5th, 1833 at 1:00 P.M. the following Slaves will be sold at Potters Mart, in Charleston, S.C.

     Miscellaneous Lots of Negroes, mostly house servants, some

for field work.

     Conditions:  ½ cash, balance by bond, bearing interest from date

of sale.  Payable in one to two years to be secured by a mortgage of the

Negroes, and appraised personal security.  Auctioneer will pay for

the papers.



     A valuable Negro woman, accustomed to all kinds of houser work.  Is a good

Plain cook, and excellent dairy maid, washes and irons.  She has four children, one

a girl about 13 years of age, another 7, a boy about 5, and an infant 11 months old.

2 of the children will be sold with mother, the others separately, if it best suits the



     A very valuable Blacksmith, wife and daughters; the Smith is in the prime

Of life, and a perfect master at his trade.  His wife about 27 years old, and his

Daughters 12 and 10 years old have been brought up as house servants, and as such are very valuable.  Also for sale 2 likely young negro wenches, one of whom is 16 the other 13, both of whom have been taught and accustomed to the duties of house servants.  The 16 year old wench has one eye.


     A likely yellow girl about 17 or 18 years old, has been accustomed to all kinds

of house and garden work.  She is sold for no fault.  Sound as a dollar.


     House servants:  The owner of a family descried herein, would sell them for a good price only, they are offered for no fault whatever, but because they can be done without, and money is needed, He has been offered $1250.  They consist of A man 30 to 33 years old, who has been raised in a genteel Virginia family as house servant, Carriage driver etc., in all which he excels.  His wife a likely wench of 25 to 30 raised in like manner, as chamber maid, seamstress, nurse etc., their two children, girls of 12 and 4 or 5.   They are bright mulattoes, of mild tractable dispositions, unassuming manners, and of genteel appearance and well worthy the notice of a gentleman of fortune needing such.


     Also 14 Negro Wenches ranging from 16 to 25 years of age, all sound and capable of doing a good days work in the house or field.


Public Sale of Negros



Many thanks to:

Big Man Entertainment





Deu. 28:28:37 And thou shalt become an astonishment, a proverb, and a byword, among all nations whither the LORD shall lead thee.





h8kneegrows's Avatar











Indigenous African SlaverySource: "Journey of the Discovery of the Source of the Nile" by John Hanning Speke, New York 1869

Indigenous slavery in West Africa, known as pawnship, differed somewhat from the chattel slavery of the trans-Atlantic trade, since pawns would live amongst a similar culture. Pawns would, however, still be restrained against escape.



Deu. 28:41 Thou shalt beget sons and daughters, but thou shalt not enjoy them; for they shall go into captivity.





Young African Boys Captured for Slave Trade


Young boys were the favorite cargo of trans-Atlantic slave ship captains.


African Slavery and the Slave Trade: Young African Boys Captured ...




A Slave Market


In 1663 the Maryland legislature enacted a law that " all negroes and other slaves within the province, and all negroes and other slaves to be thereafter imported into the province, should serve during life; and all children born of any negro should be slaves, as their fathers were, for the term of their lives." The same law recited that " divers free-born English-women, forgetful of their free condition, and to the disgrace of the nation, did intermarry with negro slaves," and it was enacted for deterring from such " shameful matches " that, during their husbands' lives, white women so intermarrying should be servants to the masters of their husbands, and that the issue of such marriages should be slaves for life.

History of Slavery



Diagram of the Slave Ship Brookes

Source: Library of Congress (cph 3a44236)

Illustration showing deck plans and cross sections of British slave ship Brookes.







From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia




Plans of Slave Decks, Slave Ship BrookesSource: Library of Congress

A detailed drawing of the slave ship Brookes, showing how 482 people were to be packed onto the decks. The detailed plans and cross sectional drawing of the slave ship Brookes was distributed by the Abolitionist Society in England as part of their campaign against the slave trade, and dates from 1789.



From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Jump to: navigation, search

For other uses, see Slave ship (disambiguation).

Part of a series on



Early history

History · Antiquity · Aztec
Ancient Greece · Rome
Medieval Europe
Thrall · Kholop · Serfdom

Slavery and religion

The Bible · Judaism
Christianity · Islam

By country or region

Africa · Atlantic · Arab
Barbary Coast · Coastwise
Spanish New World
Angola · Brazil · Britain and Ireland
British Virgin Islands · Canada
China · India · Iran · Japan
Libya · Mauritania · Ottoman empire
Portugal · Romania · Seychelles
Sudan · Sweden · United States


Modern Africa · Debt bondage
Peonage · Penal labour
Sexual slavery · Wage slavery
Unfree labour · Human trafficking
Contemporary slavery

Opposition and resistance

Timeline · Abolitionism
Compensated emancipation
Opponents of slavery‎
Slave rebellion · Slave narrative
Underground Railroad

v · d · e

Slave ships were large cargo ships specially converted for the purpose of transporting slaves, especially newly purchased African slaves.

The most significant routes of the slave ships led from the north-western and western coasts of Africa to South America and the south-east coast of what is today the United States of America, and the Caribbean. As many as 20 million Africans were transported by ship.[1] The transportation of slaves from Africa to America was known as the Middle Passage. The African slave trade was outlawed in 1807, by a law passed jointly in the United States of America and the United Kingdom, the applicable UK Act was the Abolition of the Slave Trade Act and outlawed slavery throughout the British Empire. The US law[2] took effect on January 1, 1808. After that date all US and English slave ships leaving Africa were legally pirate vessels subject to capture by the United States Navy or Royal Navy. In 1815,[3] at the Council of Vienna, Spain, Portugal, France and The Netherlands also agreed to abolish their slave trade. During this time, the slave ships became smaller and more cramped in exchange for improved performance in their new role as smuggling craft and blockade runners.


Atlantic slave trade

Only a few decades after the discovery of America by Europeans, demand for cheap labour to work plantations made slave-trading a profitable business. The peak time of slave ships to the Atlantic passage was between the 17th and 18th century when large plantations developed in the English colonies of North America.

In order to achieve profit, the owners of the ships divided their hulls into holds with little headroom, so they could transport as many slaves as possible. Unhygienic conditions, dehydration, dysentery and scurvy led to a high mortality rate, on average 15%[4] and up to a third of captives. Only the most resilient survived the transport. Often the ships, also known as Guineamen,[5] transported hundreds of slaves, who were chained tightly to plank beds. For example, the slave ship Henrietta Marie carried about 200 slaves on the long Middle Passage. They were confined to cargo holds with each slave chained with little room to move.[6]

List of slave ships

Cross section of decks, "tight packing" of slaves, storage areas. This ship sailed from La Rochelle in 1784, picked up about 500 Africans from north of the Congo River, and sold its slaves in Saint Domingue.


La Rochelle slave ship Le Saphir ex-voto, 1741.

Brookes slave ship plan

Images showing how the slaves were transported on the ships

Turner's The Slave Ship

Note: While La Amistad is often called a slave ship, it was in fact a general purpose cargo ship, which occasionally carried slaves. See the article about the ship, and the resulting court case, for more information.

See also

Further reading



Deu. 28:43 The stranger that is within thee shall get up above thee very high; and thou shalt come down very low.


…Jews established neighborhood businesses that survived strictly off of black customers.  They advised black leaders on public policy matters.  Jews also built entire industries around resources that blacks controlled or owned, such as sports, entertainment and music.  Black Labor, White Wealth, by Claud Anderson, Ed.D. pp. 20


Slavery In The U. S. Constitution

by Claire Berkowitz and Karen Board Moran

Abolitionists said the United States Constitution was a slave document created by slave owners. After 50 years of secrecy the deals made behind closed doors were exposed by James Madison’s newly published Notes of Debates in the Federal Convention of 1787. Many of the founding fathers who owned slaves had varying opinions about whether slavery should be abolished. In order to stabilize the nation politically and economically, the first two compromises with human life occurred:

Most founding fathers believed slavery would eventually die out. However, they had not foreseen the impact of cotton gin technology which enabled cotton to become the king cash crop of the South. Before the device was created, one slave could pick and clean seeds from a hundred pound sack of field cotton in 100 days. After 1793 a slave could pick 100 pounds a day and pass the sack to another slave hand turning the crank of the new engine to clean quickly the 100 pounds in one day - even faster if the gin was turned by mule or waterpower. The gin constantly needed to be “fed” cotton from the slave field labor planting, weeding, and picking the crop. To increase their profits from sales to British and Northern textile manufacturers, plantation owners needed more slaves and land in order to produce more cotton.

The Industrial Revolution had changed every aspect of American life and the country’s borders spread westward with the addition of the Mexican Cession—opening new cotton fields. To maintain the original Constitutional balance of lawmaking power, Congress continued to play the compromise game in 1820 and 1850 to maintain an equal number of free and slave votes in the Senate (where every state had two votes). The great fear? A majority of free states might amend the Constitution to abolish slavery within the nation at great economic loss to the slave owners and textile manufacturers.

Even before the 1787 Constitutional Convention, the Confederation Congress had been forced to deal with the issue of slavery in the Northwest Territory, northwest of the Ohio River. The Northwest Ordinance of 1787 forbade slavery in the territories and states that would be created (Ohio, Indiana, Michigan, Illinois, Wisconsin). As a concession to the South, the ordinance included a Fugitive Slave Law to ensure runaway slaves would be returned to their owners if caught in the northwest.

In the mid 19th century, many states were rewriting their constitutions in the spirit of progress and reform brought about by the technological and economic changes. Most states eliminated the property requirement for voting and expanded public education to ensure an informed electorate. Political status of women and blacks was discussed, but too much prejudice still existed in most states. Indiana, settled largely by Tennesseans and Kentuckians, included Black Laws in the new state Constitution of 1850-1851.

Indiana’s Black Laws stated:

The Compromise of 1850 necessitated by the Mexican Cession included a harsh new Fugitive Slave Law to appease the southern slave owners once more. It required:

The next crises occurred on 30 May 1854:

These events, and others, escalated negative sentiment against U. S. federal law and the Constitution. More time and bloodshed would occur before they would be amended.

WWHP - Slavery In The U. S. Constitution


Deu. 28:44 He shall lend to thee, and thou shalt not lend to him: he shall be the head, and thou shalt be the tail.


Why were black people considered to be second class citizens in America during 1945 and up until 1960?

In: United States History, African-American History



The simple, single word answer is "Racism." Racism may be defined as "the prejudice that members of one race are intrinsically superior to members of other races" (Princeton University definition). In These United States, black people in particular, and all other "nonwhite" races, and certain religions, and women, have far too much been treated as second class from the very beginning. It remains sometimes a sad, ugly fact of American life, but we're working on it. We have just elected our first African American president in history. Before that, we had our first black secretaries of state (back to back, one of whom was a woman). In each case, it really seemed that skin color was not a factor! Our problem is a human one: progress is painfully slow, but like the tortoise, we get there.

When Thomas Jefferson in 1776 wrote that "All men are created equal," it's no secret that what he meant - was Men: White, Anglo Saxon, Protestant Christian, Propertied and very often slave owning White Men. The framers of the Constitution began, "We the people …," but it's also no secret that in 1787, "The People" meant White, Anglo Saxon, Protestant Christian, Propertied and very often slave owning White Men.

It is precisely because of this peculiarity of our Founding Fathers that, as national attitudes gradually changed, sometimes with great violence, the nation has been on a collective guilt trip since the 18th Century.

But you specifically asked about black people between 1945 and 1960 (for purposes of this discussion I shall use the common terms "white" and "black," although I dislike both: we are, all of us humans, varying shades of brown). Racism is the curse and tragedy of the entire world (see under Darfur), but it was especially a curse and a tragedy in the USA because of slavery. We Americans are to this day struggling with the poisonous legacy of slavery. It caused our Civil War, it caused what we call Jim Crow in the post Civil War south, it has caused immeasurable pain and suffering for all "nonwhite" people, sometimes right down to the present minute, despite our having elected a person of color to the Presidency. Our present Attorney General, Eric Holder, himself a person of "mixed race" has said, rightly or wrongly, that America is a Nation of Cowards because we Americans cannot look racism (or any other -ism) in the eye and deal with it honestly.

During World War 2 (≈1942-1945), black citizens served in every branch of the military, but the military was strictly segregated. Black men were put into units that consisted entirely of black men, but their officers were usually white, because the conventional wisdom of the time, even as late as the 1940's, was that black people couldn't do anything right unless they were led by white people. Nevertheless, thousands of black men in uniform distinguished themselves in the fight to the death against Fascism, which is itself nearly synonymous with Racism. This experience changed the black veteran and helped lead to the Civil Rights Movement (1955-1968).

Also during World War 2, black citizens served in every war industry. Thousands flocked from south to north where the industries were and faithfully helped build the fabulous American war machine that did so much to defeat the Axis Powers. This experience also changed the black citizen and helped lead to the Civil Rights Movement.

But in 1945 the war ended, and an economic recession began. War industries downsized and returned to peacetime pursuits, or disappeared altogether. At the same time tens of thousands of white soldiers returned from the battlefronts looking for jobs. Blacks, even black veterans were immediately displaced, but with no jobs they had nowhere to go. They couldn't return to the south where many had come from. There were even fewer jobs there. So they stayed where they were, in crowded black ghettos, where they made their way as best they could while crime and violence tended to rise, and the northern white population lifted its collective nose and sneered, "Typical."

But blacks by this time had had enough. In the north they were jammed into ghettos and denied work. Their children were allowed to go to integrated schools, but many white teachers dismissed black children as "not as smart" as whites, which could become a self fulfilling prophecy. In the south blacks were subjected to laws that prohibited them from "whites only" schools, movie theaters, drinking fountains, and space on the bus (President Barack Obama could not have taken a sip from a "whites only" water fountain in, say, Alabama as late as 1965). The great catalytic moment came in 1955, when a black seamstress named Rosa Parks, tired and with sore feet, refused to stand on a Montgomery, Alabama bus so that a white man could sit. She was, she said, "Tired of giving in."

In 1948 President Harry S. Truman issued an executive order integrating the armed services. It wasn't until 1954 that the last all-black unit was fully assimilated, and the armed forces didn't at first like it, but it was a beginning, and a powerful beginning.

By 1960, the whole country was beginning to change in its attitudes. In the north, as more and more black people began to appear and do well in teaching and doctoring and business and government and professions, northern whites were forced to take a second look at their assumptions about the competency of black people. On February 1, in Greensboro, North Carolina, four young black students began a sit-in at a segregated Woolworth's lunch counter. Ordinary (black) kids with extraordinary courage, enduring not only not being served, for months, but having food and liquid dumped on them, yet enduring nevertheless. Their courage and determination triggered other nonviolent protests across the southern U.S. Black leaders began to challenge Jim Crow in nonviolent marches and demonstrations. In December, 1960, a flurry of obscure Supreme Court decisions begins to legally dismantle Jim Crow in the south.

There was a long road ahead, and many murders and lynchings, some very famous. For us who lived it, it seemed to start with the murder in 1963 of President John F. Kennedy. No one knows what the motive was, and there is no evidence that Kennedy's support of civil rights had anything to do with it, but it seemed to trigger a cascade of assassinations and attempted assassinations. The Rev. Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. was murdered in 1968. Senator Robert Kennedy, running for president, was murdered in 1968. President Lyndon Baines Johnson refused to run again in 1968, exhausted from the growing debacle in Vietnam, but also Johnson had been at the forefront of not-always-popular civil rights legislation. Yet, by 2008 this "racist" nation overlooked the darker color of a man's skin and judged him on the Content of his Character and elected him President of The United States. There is hope for us.

Read more:



African-Americans Are Tired

of Being Treated Like Second-Class Citizens

Zarian Phipps


by Zarian Phipps


For centuries, the United States has treated African-Americans as second-class citizens. Actually for a good portion of it's history, the United States didn't consider Black people citizens at all. To go along with this total dehumanization, a system of laws and practices were set up in order to continue the total disenfranchisement of African-Americans for years even after slavery was begrudingly abolished. A system of programs in the 1960's and 1970's such as Affirmative Action were put in place to make society feel as if it had addressed it's most painful chapter and made amends for it although not even an official apology for the mistreatment of African-Americans as a result of slavery and the after affects of racism was ever given.


In the year 2007 many non-Black citizens of the United States see no reason why a majority of African-Americans still feel like second-class citizens. They don't see why millions of young black people have no hope for a happy future. In fact, many Americans think that it is time to repeal the minute measures that were put into place to ensure non-discriminatory treatment for African-Americans. They don't see why Affirmative Action is needed and some of them vocally say that it is discriminatory against White people.

The reason why African-Americans feel like second-class citizens is because we are. Black people in this country are more likely to live in poverty as their white counterparts by many times over. They are also less likely to receive a good education or medical treatment. Black people are more likely to go to prison and receive harsher sentences than White people in the United States. We even die sooner than White people in this country do. Simply put, not much has changed in the lives of the majority of African-American people in the United States, the comfort of the poverty level has simply increased. Not much has changed because the lasting affects that racism has on succeeding generations of African-Americans have never been addressed on any serious level.

Even after Hurricane Katrina made it impossible for any rational person to deny the racial discrepancies that still exist there is no serious debate going on to address the obvious problems.

Many people find it easier to simply think that African-Americans are not working hard enough to pull themselves out of the negative situation they are in. There is no validity in these opinions as it is ludicrous to think that the majority of Black people in the United States are making the conscious choice to stay in the rut that they are in. No group of people in the United States has worked harder than African-Americans so the notion that they are lazy is totally false.

African-Americans are demanding that we not be treated as second-class citizens anymore. We are demanding that the systematic issues that have held us back for centuries be rectified and changed. Black people deserve a chance in this society to reap the benefits of all of the hard work that we have done to make this a great country. We are not asking for a handout or charity, but only for what is due to us and that's a lot.

Visit the African-American Political Spot and read about the reality of the Black experience!


African-Americans Are Tired of Being Treated Like Second-Class ...




….Slaves lived in dilapidated, damp, dark cabins, and their worldly possessions consisted of a few rags.  A small board and a stick of wood, served as their beds and pillows.  There were no physical, financial, nor psychological comforts for them, and worst of all, slaves were intentionally kept without hope.  A slave’s life was committed to producing wealth and comfort for white masters.  The slaves suffered in silence, but routinely asked in their prayers and work songs, “When will life get better for us, Lord?”  Their descendants collectively still await an answer.  Black Labor, White Wealth by Claud Anderson, Ed.D. pps. 10,11




Secession Crisis

Constitution on Slavery  "Clearly Sanctioned"

Black African slavery had existed in the North American English colonies for 168 years before the U.S. Constitution was drafted in 1787. It had existed all across colonial America, but by 1804 most Northern states, finding that slavery was not profitable for them, had effectively abolished the institution. In the South, however, especially after the 1793 invention of the cotton gin, the institution grew, becoming an inextricable part of the economy and way of life.

Whether slavery was to be permitted and continued under the new Constitution was a matter of conflict between the North and South, with several Southern states refusing to join the Union if slavery were disallowed. Thus, in spite of a warning from Virginian George Mason that slaves "bring the judgment of Heaven on a country," the continuance of slavery was clearly sanctioned in the U.S. Constitution, although the words slave and slavery are not found anywhere in the document. Section 2 of Article I states that apart from free persons "all other persons," meaning slaves, are each to be counted as three-fifths of a white person for the purpose of apportioning congressional representatives on the basis of population. Section 9 of Article I states that the importation of "such Persons as any of the States now existing shall think proper to admit," meaning slaves, would be permitted until 1808. And Section 2 of Article IV directs that persons "held to Service or Labour in one State, under the Laws thereof, escaping into another," meaning fugitive slaves, were to be returned to their owners.

The Bill of Rights, adopted in 1791, says nothing about slavery. But the Fifth Amendment guaranteed that no person could "be deprived of life, liberty, or property, without due process of law." Slaves were property, and slaveholders had an absolute right to take their property with them, even into free states or territories.

Fascinating Fact:  The rhetoric in the Constitution and the Declaration of Independence about liberty, freedom, being created equal, and so on, was seldom considered applicable to blacks, slave or free. Seen a subservient race, they were excluded from consideration as members of society and had few rights.

Constitution On Slavery





Sir John Hawkins (1532-1595) from Plymouth, was the first Englishman to trade in Africans, making three voyages to Sierra Leone and taking 1,200 inhabitants to Hispaniola and St Domingue (present day Dominica and Haiti) from 1562.


The British slave trade started to become a major enterprise in the 17th century, when King James I set up the first monopoly company to trade with Africa in 1618.  Britain acquired colonies in America and the Caribbean and demand for slaves to work the tobacco, rice, sugar and other crops on plantations grew.  London was the centre of this early trade.


In 1698 the monopoly on trade with Africa was abolished, opening up the valuable opportunity to merchants from other ports such as Bristol and Liverpool.  Wealth from the direct trade in slaves and from the plantations came back to Britain and was invested in buildings which stand today.

Guildhall Exterior. Image by Boris Baggs

Guildhall Exterior. Image by Boris Baggs (C) English Heritage 



London held a central position in the development and continuation of transatlantic slavery from John Hawkins’ first voyage to Sierra Leone in 1562 to the opening of the West India Docks in 1802. Until 1698 London enjoyed a monopoly over the trade by royal charter.


Between 1660 and 1690, 15 Lord Mayors of London, 25 sheriffs and 38 aldermen of the City of London, who met at the Guildhall, Gresham Street, London EC2 (020 7606 3030 ext.1463), were shareholders in the Royal Africa Company which ran the transatlantic slave trade. These connections to the slave trade increased during the 18th century.


The Zong Case (1783) was tried here. This incident, in which 133 slaves on a ship to Jamaica were thrown overboard alive in order that the owners could claim the insurance on them under British law, shocked the public and was seen as a turning-point in the abolitionist campaign.


A statue to William Beckford Sr (1709-1770) stands at the east end of the south wall in Guildhall – the only Lord Mayor to receive this honour. Beckford was known as the 'uncrowned king of Jamaica'. His fortune came from 20,022 acres of plantations on the island. He was twice Lord Mayor of London and was also MP for the City of London.


Lord Chief Justice Lord Mansfield heard many cases in Westminster Hall, Palace of Westminster, London W1, (020 7219 3000) when it was a Court of Law.  He presided over the case of James Somerset in 1772. Somerset was a slave from America who escaped while his owner was visiting London, was re-captured and put aboard a ship to Jamaica. Mansfield ruled that "no master ever was allowed to take a slave byforce to be sold abroad because he deserted from his service". Mansfield's home was Kenwood House, Hampstead Lane, London NW3.


A commemorative statue to Robert Milligan, chairman of the West India Dock Company stands on the West India Quay, Canary Wharf, London E14. Milligan, together with other West India planters and merchants, built the docks for the safe importation of sugar, rum and coffee from the Caribbean plantations. It was described on its opening in 1802 as “the largest feat of civil engineering since the building of the pyramids”. Behind the statue, The Museum in Docklands, (0870 444 3851) occupies one of the two surviving warehouses built at this time.


Edward Colston statue, Boris Baggs © English Heritage

Edward Colston statue


Bristol area

The Georgian House Museum, 7 Great George Street, Bristol BS1 5RR (0117 921 1362), was built by John Pinney (1740-1818), who earned his fortune from his sugar plantations in Nevis. He became even richer through the company he set up with his friend, the anti-abolitionist pamphleteer James Tobin.


They owned ships, loaned money to plantation owners and took over both the plantations and slaves of those who could not pay their debts. Pero (1753-1798) was Pinney’s personal servant, sold to Pinney when he was 12 along with his two sisters, possibly in Nevis. Pero was living here by 1791 and would have seen the kitchens very much as they are shown in the gallery.


Edward Colston (1636-1721) made his fortune as a sugar merchant and member of the Royal African Company with interests in St Kitts, but was also famous for his charity and philanthropy in Bristol, where he was born.


He founded almshouses at St Michael’s Hill and supported local schools. A statue of him was erected in Colston Avenue, Bristol in the 19th century.


Queen Square, Bristol (built 1699-1727) was home to wealthy merchants with interests in the West Indies.

Henry Bright (1715-1777), Mayor of Bristol and a prominent Bristol merchant and slave trader, lived with his black servant called Bristol at number 29, currently leased to the South West regional office of English Heritage.


At numbers 33 to 35 lived Captain Woodes Rogers (1679-1732), a famous privateer who made a voyage around the world in 1708 to 1711, trading in slaves on the way. He also invested in a ship carrying slaves from Africa to Jamaica


Blaise Castle, Henbury Road, Henbury, Bristol, (0117 353 2268) is a quirky gothic folly built on the top of Blaise Hill in 1766 by Thomas Farr.

Farr had large investments in the slave trade and it is said that he spent the equivalent of about £150,000 today building the folly, so that he could climb it to watch his ships sailing back up the River Avon to Bristol.


William Beckford's (1760-1844) huge inheritance allowed him to enjoy an extravagant lifestyle, be a writer, collector and patron of the arts, and to build the gothic Fonthill Abbey in Wiltshire and Beckfords Tower, 1 Royal Crescent, Bath (01225 460705) in 1827.


William was the son of William Beckford Snr, plantation owner and twice Lord Mayor of London. His grandfather Peter Beckford (1643-1710) founded the greatest sugar fortune in the West Indies.


Liverpool Town Hall Exterior Image by Boris Baggs

Liverpool Town Hall Exterior Image by Boris Baggs (C) English Heritage 



Like London's Guildhall, Liverpool Town Hall, (0151 225 5530) was at the centre of the city's trading activity. All of the city's mayors between 1787 and 1807 were involved in the slave trade. Built in 1754, the building's frieze shows African faces, elephants, crocodiles and lions representing Liverpool's African trading links.


Though one of Britain's busiest trading ports, little remains of the Liverpool docks of this time, but the Canning Graving Docks, which remain, were used for fitting out and repairing slave ships in the late 18th century.


North West merchant houses

Grand properties were built by successful plantation owners far away from Liverpool where their fortunes were made.


Whernside Manor, Dent, Sedbergh, Cumbria (01539 625213) is currently a hotel but was the country home of the Sill family from Liverpool whose wealth came from Jamaican plantations. Speke Hall, The Walk, Liverpool (National Trust 0151 427 7231) was the home of Richard Watt,a Liverpool merchant who had made his fortune from sugar plantations in Jamaica. He bought the house and its 2,400 acre estate for £73,500 in 1795. Storrs Hall, Windermere, Cumbria (015394 47111), now also a hotel, was acquired in 1806 by John Bolton, a Cumbrian who made his fortune as a Liverpool slave trader, with plantations in St Vincent and St Lucia.


A question mark hangs over the wreck of the 'Douro', a Liverpool ship wrecked and sunk beneath the seas at Round Rock, Isles of Scilly in 1843, 36 years after British ships were banned from the slave trade.  Said to be heading to Portugal when it went down with a cargo of textiles and munitions, divers have found large numbers of glass beads and manillas, bronze bracelet-shaped trading tokens, on the wreck. These had a long history as currency used to trade for slaves in West Africa.


Was the Douro involved in illegal slaving or carrying supplies for the banned trade? The market for slaves did not disappear with abolition in Britain, and so traders continued to meet demand in places like Brazil and Cuba. To combat illegal slave trading the British Navy organised anti-slavery patrols off the West African coast between 1815 and 1865 when they seized many vessels.


 Manila from the wreck of the Douro, Mark Dunkley © English Heritage


North West

In the course of the 18th century, Lancaster and Whitehaven slaveships carried in excess of 29,000 and 14,000 slaves, respectively, out of Africa. Though overshadowed by Liverpool, London and Bristol, these statistics put them at the forefront of smaller operators. Between 1750 and 1775 ships made 100 voyages to the African coast from St Georges Quay, Lancaster, where Kevin Dalton Johnson's 'Captured Africans Sculpture', unveiled in 2005, is now a memorial to this history. Whitehaven ships accounted for nearly 60 further slaving voyages.



Henry Lascelles (1690-1753) was a banker and sugar importer who held shares in 21 ships involved in the slave trade between Barbados and Africa. He bought land in Yorkshire with the fortune he had amassed and in 1759 his son Edwin Lascelles, Baron Harewood (1712-95), laid the foundation stone of Harewood House, Harewood, Leeds LS17 (0113 218 1010).


West Midlands

The Fitzherbert family, owners of Tissington Hall, Tissington, Ashbourne, Derbyshire, (01335 352200) since the 17th century, married into the Perrin family, who owned four plantations in Jamaica, producing sugar and coffee from the second half of the 18th century. These came to be owned and managed from Tissington Hall. At the same time, reflecting the growing divisions on the slavery issue, John Alleyne, one of the barristers supporting the case of escaped slave James Somerset, was also related to the Fitzherberts by marriage. Alleyne had turned against his own family's business in Barbados and worked with Granville Sharpe in the abolition cause.


The Slave Trade and Plantation Wealth | English Heritage




Deu. 28:45 Moreover all these curses shall come upon thee, and shall pursue thee, and overtake thee, till thou be destroyed; because thou hearkenedst not unto the voice of the LORD thy God, to keep his commandments and his statutes which he commanded thee:


View more History, Politics, Society videos

 Britannica Concise Encyclopedia:

slave trade


Home > Library > Miscellaneous > Britannica Concise Encyclopedia


Capturing, selling, and buying of slaves. Slavery has existed throughout the world from ancient times, and trading in slaves has been equally universal. Slaves were taken from the Slavs and Iranians from antiquity to the 19th century, from the sub-Saharan Africans from the 1st century AD to the mid-20th century, and from the Germanic, Celtic, and Romance peoples during the Viking era. Elaborate trade networks developed: for example, in the 9th and 10th centuries, Vikings might sell East Slavic slaves to Arab and Jewish traders, who would take them to Verdun and León, whence they might be sold throughout Moorish Spain and North Africa. The transatlantic slave trade is perhaps the best-known. In Africa, women and children but not men were wanted as slaves for labour and for lineage incorporation; from c. 1500, captive men were taken to the coast and sold to Europeans. They were then transported to the Caribbean or Brazil, where they were sold at auction and taken throughout the New World. In the 17th and 18th centuries, African slaves were traded in the Caribbean for molasses, which was made into rum in the American colonies and traded back to Africa for more slaves.

For more information on slave trade, visit

Oxford Dictionary of British History:


slave trade


Home > Library > History, Politics & Society > British History

The slave trade of Great Britain, and those of other European countries, transformed the indigenous African and surpassed the Muslim trades. Britain's became the largest national trade. About 75, 000 Africans were carried in British ships in the 17th cent.; in 1701-1800 the numbers were about 2.5 million out of the6.13 million slaves exported, reflecting the expanding demand from the British plantations, especially the sugar colonies, as well as exports to Spanish America.

The English trade after 1600 was first conducted by monopolistic chartered companies, of which the Guinea Company (1618) lasted until the 1650s. The Royal Adventurers into Africa (1660, 1663) was succeeded by the Royal Africa Company (1672-1752). However, private traders were always active, even before the company's quasi-monopoly was ended in 1698. The trade was viewed as a pillar of the plantations and necessary to economic and commercial expansion.

The trade was critical to the production of major colonial commodities, especially sugar, tobacco, and rice. Its importance for certain British ports is well known. Liverpool's dominance is clear and Liverpudlians were in the forefront of opposition to reform. Figures for 1750-76 suggest 1, 868 ships sailed from there to Africa, 588 from Bristol, and about 260 from London. However, arguments that it provided important investment capital, contributing to the British industrial revolution, are now discounted. See anti-slavery.

Gale Encyclopedia of US History:

Slave Trade


History, Politics & Society > US History Encyclopedia

The widespread enslavement of diverse peoples for economic and political gain has played a fundamental role throughout human history in the development of nations. Ancient Greek and Roman societies operated by using slave labor, as did many European countries in the modern period. As early as the Middle Ages, Mediterranean cities were supplied with "Moorish" black slaves from Muslim countries in North Africa. By comparison, the "slave trade" is a term which has grown to be associated specifically with the "transatlantic" or "triangular" trade that spanned four centuries (roughly between 1518 and 1865), involved three continents (Europe, Africa, and the Americas), and was responsible for human suffering on an unprecedented scale.

Slavery Comes to the New World

African slaves were first brought to the New World shortly after its discovery by Christopher Columbus—legend has it that one slave was included in his original crew—and they could be found on Hispaniola, site of present-day Haiti, as early as 1501. Upon his arrival in the Bahamas, Columbus himself captured seven of the natives for their "education" on his return to Spain. However, the slave trade proper only began in 1518, when the first black cargo direct from Africa landed in the West Indies. The importation of black slaves to work in the Americas was the inspiration of the Spanish bishop, Bartolomé de Las Casas, whose support of black slavery was motivated by "humanitarian" concerns. He argued that the enslavement of Africans and even of some whites—proving that in the early period slavery did not operate according to exclusive racial demarcations—would save the indigenous Amerindian populations, which were not only dying out but engaging in large-scale resistance as they opposed their excessively harsh conditions. As a result, Charles V, then king of Spain, agreed to the asiento or slave trading license (1513), which later represented the most coveted prize in European wars as it gave to those who possessed it a monopoly in slave trafficking.

The widespread expansion of the oceanic slave trade can be attributed to the enormous labor demanded by sugarcane, one of the first and most successful agricultural crops to be cultivated by slaves. The earliest lucrative Spanish sugar plantations were in the Caribbean and West Indies on the islands of Haiti, Cuba, and Jamaica, while Portugal controlled large areas of Brazil. However, Spanish and Portuguese domination of the trade was soon challenged by other Europeans, including the British. One of their earliest adventurers, Sir John Hawkins, undertook his first voyage between 1562 and 1563, and as a direct consequence of his gains was knighted by Elizabeth I. By the late sixteenth and early seventeenth centuries, the Dutch had also secured prominence by founding the Dutch West India Company, taking control of northern Brazil, and conquering the slave-holding fort of Elmina on the West African coast. Among Britain's major slave-trading successes was Barbados (and later Jamaica, seized from Spain), upon which sugar was cultivated by Africans imported by the Royal African Company, founded in 1672 to protect a British monopoly in the trade. Throughout the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries, Britain's transatlantic slaveholding empire was unrivaled. By using vessels that embarked from the ports of Liverpool, Bristol, and London, Britain traded slaves from diverse areas of the African continent: from Senegambia south to the Gambia River as well as within Sierra Leone (later a settlement of British missionaries), the Gold Coast, the Bight of Benin, and West-Central Africa. The main African tribes associated with the slave trade were the Ibo, Mandingo, Ashanti, Yoruba, and Ewe—and each responded very differently, with various consequences, to white processes of enslavement.

Height and Decline of the Slave Trade

According to Philip Curtin, a recent statistician of the "transatlantic" slave trade, the eighteenth century both represented the height of the trade and also marked the beginnings of its decline. As far as the practice of negotiations between African and European sellers and buyers was concerned, the trade was made possible by "middlemen." These were usually mixed-race in origin or lower-class whites, who traveled deep into the interior and bartered with local African peoples. The sale of weapons in exchange for slaves represented the preferred commodity of Africans, as these were needed to maintain the trade and to protect their communities from raids and incursions by illegal traders and kidnappers (many of them European). The slave trade stimulated divisions within Africa as European rivalry encouraged various nations to enslave, kidnap, or wage war on each other while—as part of its more prolonged legacy—it devastated indigenous populations and economic structures. From a European point of view, it greatly stimulated national wealth and laid the foundations for modern capitalism as, in particular, the financial infrastructures required by the slave trade inaugurated new systems of banking and insurance.

Throughout the period, the slave trade remained closely linked to advances in the sugar plantation system as, for example, major production areas were transferred from offshore African islands to northeastern Brazil by the mid-sixteenth century. As the arrival of the first Africans in Jamestown, Virginia, in 1619 attests, slave populations working tobacco crops in the British colonies of Virginia and Maryland, as well as rice plantations in the Carolinas of mainland North America, in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries, could only be sustained by the transatlantic slave trade.

The major reasons for the need of a trade in slaves on such a scale can be traced to the much smaller populations of the Americas in comparison with those of the Old World. For white immigrants (including paupers, criminals, and some kidnapped children) who arrived in the seventeenth and eighteenth century as indentured servants, the conditions were so harsh that they were unable, and in many cases refused, to fulfill the existing labor market; they frequently opposed the renewal of their contracts or simply died out.

While the first Africans who were imported to the Americas were described somewhat euphemistically as "apprentices for life," as labor demands increased and racist rhetoric became more deeply entrenched in everyday life, they acquired an unambiguous "chattel" status. It was not long before slavery in the Americas operated according to, and was legitimated by, white racist discourses of "natural black inferiority." Proponents of slavery ideology, including such prominent nineteenth-century figures as John C. Calhoun and even Thomas Jefferson, argued that slavery (or the "peculiar institution," as it became known in North America) served a "civilizing" and "christianizing" process (the Portuguese were well known for the baptism of their slaves) by educating the "heathen" and "barbarous" African while instilling both discipline and a religious sensibility. Thus, Europeans and Euro-Americans did not try to impose slavery on the poor, on victims of war, or on those imprisoned for crimes in their own continent. Instead, they undertook extremely expensive and hazardous journeys in merchant ships to buy peoples from the African coast.

In addition to their being subject to racist definitions of cultural differences, Africans were selected for other reasons, including the widespread belief that they were better able to withstand the climate and disease; however, it is unlikely that many Africans outlived Europeans in plantation areas of the Americas. One historian has commented perceptively that the "African slave trade appears rooted as much in cultural perceptions and social norms as in economic and demographic imperatives."

The slave trade's contribution to European and American understanding of Africans as "property" with "no rights that they were bound to respect" left behind a legacy that has continued well into the twentieth century, arguably undergirding the racial politics of the civil rights movement in North America and continuing to shape the contemporary debates concerning reparations for slavery. Despite early problems, the slave trade was enormously financially successful: Britain's colonial status was fueled by wealth from tobacco and sugar plantations in both the West Indies and mainland North America as ports in London, Liverpool, and Bristol prospered, ushering in a modern age dominated by a "plantocracy" of elite slave owners or "absentee" landlords with "interests" (rarely specified) abroad. The later transatlantic slave trade complemented earlier trans-Saharan practices, which had traded primarily in men, by its demographic diversity. European traders preferred male slaves; however, despite popular belief, on the slave ships men were outnumbered by women and children, who were exported in unprecedented numbers and to such an extent that, by the end of the period, the largest numbers of slaves were children. The numbers of human beings involved are staggering: both when considered by themselves and even more so when placed within a context of earlier slave-trading practices. For example, over the course of some twelve centuries, three and a half to four million slaves crossed the Sahara in the trans-Saharan trade of Arabic origins. However, in the transatlantic trade, which lasted less than half that time, a "conservative estimate" (which significantly neglects to consider the recent statistics of Afrocentric historians) suggests that as many as twelve million (ten and a half million surviving) were transported out of Africa between the mid-fourteenth century and 1867, when a final slave ship arrived in Cuba with its human cargo (it is likely that the last cargoes landed as lately as 1880).

Statistics are almost impossible to verify but research suggests that, by the early nineteenth century, for every European who crossed the Atlantic, two Africans were exported. Approximately one-half of the total number of Africans shipped in the eighteenth century, and onequarter in the nineteenth, was sent to the Americas. A little-discussed subject concerns the mortality rate among slaves (for which statistics are not known) who died in the African interior. By far the greatest "bulk" of captives for sale had traveled far across the continent, in some cases as many as "a thousand miles," previous to their departure at the Atlantic coast.

European Character and Intervention

The slave trade was primarily European in character, as among those profiting in the trade were Spain, Portugal, Britain, France, and Holland; they were later seconded by Swedish, Danish, and North American participants. Much earlier—in the thirteenth century—Italy had also played an important role in the human trade; bronze sculptures dating from the medieval period and representing shackled Africans can still be found in Venice. While slavery did exist in Africa before 1400 (slaves were traded largely as the result of internal raids and wars for "domestic" purposes), European intervention changed the face of indigenous slavery as it became systematized and organized to a previously unimaginable extent. The slave trade was operated internationally and combined the economic interests of the Americas, Britain, and continental Europe as it simultaneously exacerbated and contributed to the impoverishment of western Africa. European dominance in the slave trade also encouraged slavery within Africa itself—especially the enslavement of women—and fomented dissensions across and within different African societies while stimulating war and kidnapping between various traders as they represented conflicting national interests.

European intervention into African slavery revolutionized existing systems and internal trading patterns as slave ships participated in the "triangular" trade between Europe, Africa, and the Americas. Slave captains took manufactured goods (rum, textiles, weapons) to Africa, which they exchanged for slaves whom they then sold in the Americas in return for raw materials such as sugar, tobacco, and later cotton, which they then brought back to Europe, completing the triangle. In the early period of the slave trade, Europeans built medieval forts such as Elmina Castle, a Portuguese stronghold that later fell to the British and that survived as a tourist attraction until the twenty-first century. These castles functioned as "barracoons" where slaves were held under horrendous conditions until they were loaded on ships bound for the Americas. Initially Europeans took slaves to the Iberian Peninsula, Madeira, the Canaries, and São Tomé; they were moved from one part of the African coast to the other before they were transported to the Americas. Throughout a four-hundred-year period, slaves were exported from western Africa to Brazil, the Caribbean Islands, Greater Antilles, and North America. Regardless of the fluctuations in trading routes and agreements throughout this period, one factor remained constant: the cost of slaves increased and profits soared.

What was the likely destination for slaves from Africa who made the transatlantic voyage? Brazil and the Caribbean took as much as 90 percent of the slaves—where upon arrival they underwent a process of "seasoning," which even fewer survived—while the American colonies took as little as 8 percent. Within the Caribbean and Central America, Spain dominated the early trade, while Britain, due to its improvements in maritime technology, gained prominence between the mid-seventeenth and mid-eighteenth centuries. Following the abolition of the slave trade by Britain and the United States in 1807 (full emancipation was not to be awarded in the British colonies until 1834, while the Thirteenth Amendment to the U.S. Constitution abolished slavery much later, in 1863), nine-tenths of slaves were taken to Cuba and Brazil. After the above legislation, many illegal voyages took place with paradoxically greater human suffering, as they were forced to operate clandestinely. By far the most important reason for exporting slaves was sugar cultivation; by comparison, tobacco, rice, coffee growing, and mining for precious metals accounted for less than 20 percent of Africans.

Despite popular opinion, the "booming" production of cotton depended not on the transatlantic slave trade but on the nineteenth-century internal slave trade, which operated from east to west, north to south, and which was made possible only by an expanding black population. This trade brought with it its own horrors, including not only the separation of slave families and suffering under brutal conditions on remote plantations, but also the kidnapping of free blacks into slavery and the wholesale exploitation of the black female slave for "breeding" purposes. In 1790, there were approximately 697,897 slaves in North America as compared to 3,953,760 in 1860, all of whom were indigenous rather than imported.

Continued at the following link:  slave trade: Definition from

Read more:



Deu. 28:46 And they shall be upon thee for a sign and for a wonder, and upon thy seed for ever.


Deu. 28:47 Because thou servedst not the LORD thy God with joyfulness, and with gladness of heart, for the abundance of all things;


Deu. 28:48 Therefore shalt thou serve thine enemies which the LORD shall send against thee, in hunger, and in thirst, and in nakedness, and in want of all things: and he shall put a yoke of iron upon thy neck, until he have destroyed thee.




Stock Photography - chained and yoked 
slaves on the 
march to the trading 
station, 1965. 
fotosearch - search 
stock photos, 
pictures, wall 
murals, images, 
and photo clipart

Stock Photography - Chained and yoked slaves on the march to the trading station, 1965

2321781 Image State RM Rights Managed Photograph










“The sons of Japheth; Gomer, and Magog,

and Madai, and Javan, and Tubal, and Meshech, and Tiras.

And the sons of Gomer; Ashkenaz, and Riphath, and Togarmah.

And the sons of Javan; Elishah, and Tarshish, Kittim, and Dodanim.

By these were the isles of the Gentiles divided in their lands;

every one after his tongue, after their families, in their nations.”

Genesis 10:2 - 5


It is impossible that the Whites who came out of Europe and have taken control of the Land of Israel are the Jews of the Tribe of Judah – UTTERLY IMPOSSIBLE!  Deuteronomy 28th Chapter speaks about a people going into Slavery and Captivity.  These people who occupy GOD’s Land of Israel are so powerful that they also control the United States via their representation in the House of Representation, the Senate, and by AIPAC, not to mention their military power in the Middle East.  They own diamond minds, run banks, control the movie industry, and are some of the richest people in the world with the biggest bomb in the world, and sadly are only concerned about themselves with their “Never Again” slogan.  Hence, nothing in Deuteronomy 28th Chapter speaks about Europeans except their involvement in the Slave Trade of the Children of Israel.  Thus, these White “Jews” are also guilty of indulging themselves in the wealth of free labor at the expense of Blacks out of Africa.



Deu. 28:49 The LORD shall bring a nation against thee from far, from the end of the earth, as swift as the eagle flieth; a nation whose tongue thou shalt not understand;


White Jewish participation

in the trade of buying and selling Blacks out of Africa

“As the profits mounted, the Portuguese elite and the rich put more investments into the trade. It is here that we come across a very touchy issue - the involvement of European Jews in the slave trade.

But as the facts must fall where they may, even Hugh Thomas, one of the greatest Western chroniclers of the slave trade who went to exceptional lengths in his 925-page tome on the slave trade published in November 1997, to disguise the involvement of European Jews in the slave trade, cannot help but say:

"The most important merchant of Portugal concerned in the slave trade in the mid-16th century was Fernando Jimenez who [was] based in Lisbon... Despite his Jewish ancestry, the powerful reforming Pope Sixtus V was so appreciative of his services that he gave him the right to use his own surname, Peretti.

"Jimenez's descendants were among the largest contractors in Africa - above all, eventually, in Angola. The Jimenezes were run close in wealth and influence by another New Christian [an euphemism for a converted Jew or converso], Emmanuel Rodrigues, and his family - including Simon, a dominant figure in the [slave] trade from Cape Verde."

Hugh continues: "Other conversos in the slave trade included Manuel Caldeira, whose great days were in the early 1560s, and who then became chief treasurer of the realm... It is true that much of the slave trade in the 16th and 17th centuries in Lisbon [the glory centuries of the Portuguese slave trade] was financed by converted Jews, New Christians or conversos; though whether such a person is to be seen as a Jew is not something on which I should wish to pronounce."

Who can blame Hugh Thomas? The involvement of European Jews in the slave trade is almost a taboo subject, which only the brave talk and write about…

One of these brave people is Dr Yosef ben-Jochannan, an author of over 30 books. Ben-Jochannan is one of the greatest African-American historical researchers and Egyptologists that ever lived. He is a black Jew whose family root is in Ethiopia. Before October 1935, when Mussolini dropped the bomb and exterminated 4.5 million Ethiopian-Jews, there were 5 million of them in the country.

"Mussolini left us with only 500,000 of our people, and the world said nothing about it," Ben-Jochannan once told a conference in London. "My uncle, Prof Tammarat Emmanuel of Ethiopia's Hebrew Community went to the United States to beg aid from the American Jews against the Italians. They gave him a mere $432 and put him in a boat that took him across the Atlantic and through the Suez Canal!"

Ben-Jochannan is famed for his outspokenness and his original research into matters African. His book, The African Origins of the Major Western Religions is a masterpiece that would win awards anywhere had the subject matter been anything but... despite his Jewish ancestry, Ben-Jochannan minces no words when discussing the involvement of European Jews in the slave trade. "Oh yes, it doesn't stop me from dealing with the fact that European Jews participated fully as Grandees (money changers) and as traders. They traded in Queen Isabella [the Catholic's] jewellery and things like that to get some money for the slave trade! That's history!"

"You can't deny that European Jews were, and are, part of European colonialism and imperialism. Where we made the mistake is to separate the two! European Jews are Europeans. When Europeans move, European Jews also move. They move not because they are Jewish, they move because they are white. They are Europeans, and that is a thing that we must understand, they have played a good game. And nobody wants to deal with the fact that Jews were equally slaveholders as well as Christians…

“Hugh Thomas even adds: "A few of these first sugar mills of Brazil were owned by converted Jews. Let us not exaggerate: Of about 40 mills in the region of Bahia whose owners can be identified in 1590, 12 were apparently New Christians. Yet the Inquisition thought that, in 1618, 20 out of 34 mills were so owned. Some of these individuals were no doubt practising Jews: the Holy Office discovered a synagogue on a plantation on the River Matoim, no distance from Bahia, in the 1590s."

Hugh continues: "The year 1651 also saw the Danes committed to begin an adventure in Guinea which would last over 200 years. The plan was conceived in Gluckstadt, a fortified city of Holstein on the Elbe (then part of Denmark), which had been renowned for its generous reception of Portuguese Jews. These seem to have taken the initiative in launching the Danish African trade, Simon and Henrik de Casseres being the first to receive 'sea passes' to go to trade at Barbados, from the patron of the city, Count Dietrich Reventlow…"


Portugal, the mother of all slavers Part II


European and American Slavers were the worst of them all.  The European/American Jews knew well that they had stolen the name of the Black Hebrew Israelites in order to take control of the Land of Israel.  Therefore, they wanted the identity of the Black Israelites to be forever hidden.  They made sure that all Blacks would become victims of ethnic cleansing and for good reason.  Then, after generations of enslavement, their true ethnicity would be completely forgotten and hidden, i.e., so, they thought.  They completely disregarded the prophesy, whereby, the GOD of Israel spoke of the return of HIS Chosen/Covenant People, the SEED of Jacob, who are of no relation to the European so-called “Jews”!  (See the last section of this publication.)



Deu. 28:50 A nation of fierce countenance, which shall not regard the person of the old, nor shew favour to the young:


Narrative of the Life of Frederick Douglass, pp. 283,284


   “Very soon after my return to Baltimore, my mistress, Lucretia, died, leaving her husband and one child, Amanda; and in a very short time after her death, Master Andrew died.  Now all the property of my old master, slaves included, was in the hands of strangers, - strangers who had had nothing to do with accumulating it.  Not a slave was left free.  All remained slaves, from the youngest to the oldest. 


   If any one thing in my experience, more than another, served to deepen my conviction of the infernal character of slavery, and to fill me with unutterable loathing of slaveholders, it was their base ingratitude to my poor old grandmother.  She had served my old master faithfully from youth to old age.  She had been the source of all his wealth; she had peopled his plantation with slaves; she had become a great grandmother I his service.  She had rocked him in infancy, attended him in childhood, served him through life, and at his death wiped from his icy brown the cold death-sweat, and closed his eyes forever.  She was nevertheless left a slave – a slave for life – a slave in the hands of strangers; and in their hands she saw her children, her grandchildren, and her great-grandchildren, divided, like so many sheep, without being gratified with the small privilege of a single word, as to their or her own destiny. 


   And, to cap the climax of their base ingratitude and fiendish barbarity, my grandmother, who was now very old, having outlived my old master and all his children, having seen the beginning and end of all of them, and her present owners finding she was of but little value, her frame already racked with the pains of old age, and complete helplessness fast stealing over her once active limbs, they took her to the woods, built her a little hut, put up a little mud-chimney, and then made her welcome to the privilege of supporting herself there in perfect loneliness; thus virtually turning her out to die!  If my poor old grandmother now lives, she lives to suffer in utter loneliness; she lives to remember and mourn over the loss of children, the loss of grandchildren, and the loss of great-grandchildren.  They are, in the language of the slave’s poet, Whittier, -



Gone, gone, sold and gone

To the rice swamp dank and lone,

Where the slave-=whip ceaseless swings,

Where the noisome insect stings,

Where the fever-demon strews

Poison with the falling dews,

Where the sickly sunbeams glare

Through the hot and misty air:-

Gone, gone, sold and gone

To the rice swamp dank, and lone,

From Virginia hills and waters-

Woe is me, my stolen daughters


   The hearth is desolate.  The children, the unconscious children, who once sang and danced in her presence, are gone.  She gropes her way, in the darkness of age, for a drink of water.  Instead of the voices of her children, she hears by day the moans of the dove, and by night the screams of the hideous owl.  All is gloom.  The grave is at the door.  And now, when weighed down by the pains and aches of old age, when the head inclines to the feet, when the beginning and ending of human existence meet, and helpless infancy and painful old age combine together- at this time, this most needful time, the time for the exercise of that tenderness and affection which children only can exercise towards a declining parent-my poor old grandmother, the devoted mother of twelve children, is left all alone, in yonder little hut, before a few dim embers.  She stands-she sits-she staggers-she falls-she groans-she dies-and there are none of her children or grandchildren present, to wipe from her wrinkled brow the cold sweat of death, or to place beneath the sod her fallen remains.  Will not a righteous God visit for these things?”


Narrative of the Life of Frederick Douglass



Deu. 28:51 - 57 And he shall eat the fruit of thy cattle, and the fruit of thy land, until thou be destroyed: which also shall not leave thee either corn, wine, or oil, or the increase of thy kine, or flocks of thy sheep, until he have destroyed thee. And he shall besiege thee in all thy gates, until thy high and fenced walls come down, wherein thou trustedst, throughout all thy land: and he shall besiege thee in all thy gates throughout all thy land, which the LORD thy God hath given thee. And thou shalt eat the fruit of thine own body, the flesh of thy sons and of thy daughters, which the LORD thy God hath given thee, in the siege, and in the straitness, wherewith thine enemies shall distress thee: So that the man that is tender among you, and very delicate, his eye shall be evil toward his brother, and toward the wife of his bosom, and toward the remnant of his children which he shall leave: So that he will not give to any of them of the flesh of his children whom he shall eat: because he hath nothing left him in the siege, and in the straitness, wherewith thine enemies shall distress thee in all thy gates. The tender and delicate woman among you, which would not adventure to set the sole of her foot upon the ground for delicateness and tenderness, her eye shall be evil toward the husband of her bosom, and toward her son, and toward her daughter, And toward her young one that cometh out from between her feet, and toward her children which she shall bear: for she shall eat them for want of all things secretly in the siege and straitness, wherewith thine enemy shall distress thee in thy gates.


Deu. 28:58 If thou wilt not observe to do all the words of this law that are written in this book, that thou mayest fear this glorious and fearful name, THE LORD THY GOD;


Deu. 28:59 Then the LORD will make thy plagues wonderful, and the plagues of thy seed, even great plagues, and of long continuance, and sore sicknesses, and of long continuance.


…The root problem in black communities across America is race and the unjust distribution of our nation’s wealth, power and resources.  One race, the descendents of white Europeans, seemingly has checkmated blacks’ efforts to improve themselves.  Whites live in privileged conditions, with nearly 100 percent ownership and control of the nation’s wealth, power, businesses and all levels of government support and resources.  White society has a monopoly of ownership and control.   Black Labor, White Wealth by Claud Anderson, Ed.D. pp. 10


…In 1841, while Solomon Northrup lamented the terrible conditions of more than four million black slaves, approximately 386,290 quasi-free blacks throughout the North were being subjected to “Jim Crow” practices, a multiplicity of local ordinances and social sanctions that prohibited them from sharing fully in an affluent American society.  They were forced to survive in poverty and social decay.  In the shadows of the American dream, blacks’ freedom was little more than a cruel and sadistic joke.  Black Labor, White Wealth by Claud Anderson, Ed.D. pp. 11


Deu. 28:60,61 Moreover he will bring upon thee all the diseases of Egypt, which thou wast afraid of; and they shall cleave unto thee. Also every sickness, and every plague, which is not written in the book of this law, them will the LORD bring upon thee, until thou be destroyed.


“…If thou wilt diligently hearken to the voice of the LORD thy God, and wilt do that which is right in his sight, and wilt give ear to his commandments, and keep all his statutes, I will put none of these diseases upon thee, which I have brought upon the Egyptians: for I am the LORD that healeth thee.”   Exodus 15:27




Common Diseases in African Americans

Krankenhauszimmer image by M. Johannsen from


overweight woman image by Inger Anne Hulbækdal from


Coronary Heart Disease

grave marker image by cvrgrl from


Sickle Cell Anemia


By Stella Cernak, eHow Contributor

updated: March 20, 2010




Deu. 28:62 And ye shall be left few in number, whereas ye were as the stars of heaven for multitude; because thou wouldest not obey the voice of the LORD thy God.


Deu. 28:63 And it shall come to pass, that as the LORD rejoiced over you to do you good, and to multiply you; so the LORD will rejoice over you to destroy you, and to bring you to nought; and ye shall be plucked from off the land whither thou goest to possess it.


…One hundred and thirty years after slavery, American society has become more pluralistic and competitive, but blacks’ marginal conditions remain relatively unchanged.  In some respects, they have worsened.  The socioeconomic inequalities that existed between whites and blacks during and shortly after slavery are now structural.


For example, on the eve of the Civil War, records indicated that more than 50 percent of free blacks were paupers; all free blacks collectively held less than one-half of one percent of the nations’ wealth, with wealth being defined as a great quantity of money or valuable goods or resources within both the private and public sectors.  A century later, in the 1960s, an era considered by many as “great decade of progress for blacks,” more than 55 percent of all the blacks in America were still impoverished and below the poverty line.  And, blacks barely held one percent of the nation’s wealth.  According to the 1990 Census, approximately 40 percent of all black families are receiving public assistance and the number is increasing, with more than 56 percent of all female-headed households beneath the poverty level.   Black Labor, White Wealth by Claud Anderson, pp. 13



Deu. 28:64 And the LORD shall scatter thee among all people, from the one end of the earth even unto the other; and there thou shalt serve other gods, which neither thou nor thy fathers have known, even wood and stone.


Jermaine Simmons





   In New England, as elsewhere, the conversion of Negroes did not go unopposed.  The argument was familiar:  making a Christian of a slave might give him notions of social equality, or might even effect his loss as a servant.  But the religious impulse was strong in New England, and the belief that the Negro had a soul to be saved would not be suppressed.  In 1674 John Eliot, a friend to the Indian, turned his attention to Negroes, inviting their masters to send them to him once a week for religious instruction.  In colonial New England clergyman-scholar Cotton Mather of Boston was the best known of the early advocates of religious instruction for slaves, opening a charity school for Indians and Negroes in 1717.  After Mather’s day it became increasingly common for a slave to be baptized and accepted into the church of his master.  Ezra Stiles, the scholarly pastor of the Second Congregational Church in Newport (and later president of Yale), gave special instructions to his Negro communicants, as these entries from his diary of 1772 indicate.


[Feb.] 24.Compiling History.  In the Evening a very full and serious Meeting of Negroes at my House, perhaps 80 or 90:  I discoursed to them on Luke xiv, 16,17,18.  “A certain man made – Excuse.”  They sang well.  They appeared attentive and much affected; and after I had done, many of them came up to me and thanked me, as they said, for taking so much Care of their souls, and hoped they should remember my Counsels.  There are six or seven Negroe Communicants in the Baptist Churches in Town, 4 or 5 in the Church of England, seven in my Church and six or seven in Mr. Hopkins’ Church:  perhaps 26, and not above 30 professors out of Twelve hundred Negroes in Town.


[July] 10.  Reading Origen contra Celsum.  I have Eighty Communicants in my Church, of which seven are Negroes.  I directed the Negroes to come to me this Evening; when three Negro Brethren and three Negro Sisters met in my Study.  I discoursed with them on the great Things of the divine Life and eternal Salvation – counseling and encouraging and earnestly pressing upon them to make their Calling and Election sure, and to walk worthy of their holy profession, and especially to maintain a daily Intercourse with heaven in holy duties and divine Contemplation on the Love of Christ.  Then we all fell upon our Knees together, and I poured our fervent Supplications at the Throne of Grace imploring the divine Blessing upon us, and commending ourselves to the holy Keeping of the Most High.  We seemed to have the delightful presence of Jesus.  The Black American A Documentary History Third Edition by Leslie H. Fishel, Jr. and Benjamin Quarles, pp. 36




Control of the slave was exercised through religion, whether encouraged as a type of escape from the trouble of the world or used as a form of indoctrination.  The all-slave church gave birth to the spirituals with their apparent emphasis on a promised land in the hereafter.  The spirituals, however, may not have been so “otherworldly” as, at first blush, they sounded.  They were susceptible of double meanings, and undoubtedly many slaves interpreted the language of the spirituals in a manner unsuspected by white listeners.  In slave-attended churches with white pastors, a special catechism, of which the following is an example, was prepared for the darker brother.


   Q. Who keeps the snakes and all bad things from hurting you?

A.  God does.

Q.  Who gave you a master and a mistress?

A.  God gave them to me.

Q.  Who says that you must obey them?

A.  God says that I must.

Q.  What book tells you these things?

A.  The Bible.

Q.  How does God do all his work?

A.  He always does it right.

Q.  Does God love to work?

A.  Yes, God is always at work.

Q.  Do the angels work?

A.  Yes, they do what God tells them.

Q.  Do they love to work?

A.  Yes, they love to please God.

Q.  What does God say about your work?

A.  He that will not work shall not eat.

Q.  Did Adam and Eve have to work?

A.  Yes, they had to keep the garden.

Q.  Was it hard to keep that garden?

A.  No, it was very easy.

Q.  What makes the crops so hard to grow now?

A.  Sin makes it.

Q.  What makes you lazy?

A.  My wicked heart.

Q.  How do you know your heart is wicked?

A.  I feel it every day.

Q.  Who teaches you so many wicked things?

A.  The Devil.

Q. Must you let the Devil teach you?

A.  No, I must not.


Frederick Douglass’ Paper, June 2, 1854, from the Southern Episcopalian, Charleston, S.C. April 1854

The Black American A Documentary History Third Edition by Leslie H. Fishel, Jr. and Benjamin Quarles, pp. 114



Converting African American Slaves to Christianity

Ohio22, Yahoo! Contributor Network

May 6, 2008 "Contribute content like this. Start Here."

By 1810 Slave trade to the United States had for the most part stopped and the African American slave population began to increase naturally. This allowed slaves to adopt their own religious practices which were authentically "African-American". Noticing the opportunity to gain a large amount of new members, Southern clergymen began to try and convert slaves to Christianity using various tactics.

One way religious leaders attempted to convert slaves was to preach a message that all slaves wanted to hear. This message was that all Christians were equal in the eyes of God. Hearing this gave the slaves hope and a reason to live. When they felt unloved and hated by their masters it helped to know that someone bigger than them all loved them and cared for them.

Another tactic to convert slaves was to hold services similar to those the slaves held themselves. These services often times involved enthusiastic singing, clapping, dancing, and even spirit-possession. Not having to change their style of worship made the African-Americans more comfortable attending Christian services.

Despite these appeals to the slaves, many white slave owners forced their slaves to attend white controlled churches because they afraid that if the slaves worshipped on their own they would be more likely to rebel. Slaves did not like these white churches because they promoted obedience to their owners which slaves considered a contradiction to the messages of equality and liberation they were being told.


On some plantations where slaves were forced to attend white services they began to secretly practice their own forms of Christianity, an action that would not be tolerated if the white slave owners found out. The slaves used secret signals and other hidden forms of communication to inform each other about upcoming meetings. These secret meeting became known as "hush harbors". These meetings often times included church, psychological refuge from the toils of slavery, and organization for rebellions. For many of the slaves, these meeting were one of the few times they felt hope and meaning during their enslavement.

One contradiction to the slave's cause in the Christian bible was a quote that read "Slaves, obey your earthly masters with respect and fear." Although this seemed to ruin the slave's chances of freedom another quote
said "And masters, treat your slaves in the same way. Do not threaten them, since you know that he who is both your Master and theirs is in heaven and there is no favoritism with him." This at least promised the slaves good treatment while in slavery.

Obviously the slaves were eventually freed. With this freedom, the slaves had an opportunity to freely choose a religion. Many of them continued on with the Christianity they had learned while enslaved. Today more than 90% of African-Americans who attend church attend one of seven black dominated Christian denominations.


Converting African American Slaves to Christianity - Associated ...




















After the horrendous sea voyage from Africa, slaves were separated and placed on plantations in the West Indies. These slaves, already disoriented, were now forced into a brutal life of labor and surveillance. Day after day, the Africans cultivated crops, tended to animals, and served their "owners" in any way possible. Sixteen to eighteen hours of work was the norm on most West Indian plantations, and during the season of sugarcane harvest, most slaves only got four hours of sleep. The punishment for disobeying an order was far worse than just accepting what was asked. This treatment of the slaves created anger and hatred towards the white plantation owners, feelings that the slaves could vent in only one way: resistance. Yet for resistance to succeed, the slaves needed to share some common values. Those slaves who were able to convert to Christianity were able to create such a bond through a common religion. In turn, this unity served as a way to resist the atrocities the plantation owners imposed on them. Thus, for many slaves, Christianization served as a means of resistance throughout the period of the slave trade.

Before the establishment of Christianity in the West Indies, slaves looked to their own system of belief, brought from their individual African tribal communities. The African religions were religions of spirit, not of doctrine. At the same time, most African religions believed in the existence of one supreme god. This belief, shared with Christianity, made it easier for Africans to understand the Christian religion. African religious beliefs held that spirits of ancestors and natural phenomena immediately affected people’s lives. Their religion saw man himself as, essentially, a spirit. Death rites were important to ascertain that the spirit of the departed remained benign rather than hostile to those left behind. However, African religions did not offer an idea of heaven, and this too attracted many slaves towards Christianity. For many, heaven promised a reward for suffering in the physical world.

While some West Indian slaves opposed European Christianity, many more would eventually come to adopt and adapt at least some of its elements. Missionaries from the Moravians, the Baptists, and the Methodists all engaged in the process of Christianization in the West Indies. By the middle of the eighteenth century, Moravian chapels and mission houses were in populated areas of many of the British-controlled islands. Missionaries argued to planters that slaves needed religion and that planters too would benefit from the conversion.

However, many planters felt that the conversion of their slaves would jeopardize their own position of power. Richard Ligon’s firsthand account of planter life in the West Indies reveals evidence of this feeling as early as the mid-eighteenth century. His account, A True and Exact History of the island of Barbados, contains a passage where Ligon is speaking to a planter about his wishes to convert one of the planters slaves (Sambo) to Christianity.

"I promised to do my best endeavor; and when I came home, spoke to the master of the plantation, and told him, that poor Sambo desired much to be a Christian. But his answer was, ‘The people of the island are governed by the laws of England, and by those laws, we could not make a Christian a slave. I told him, ‘My request was far different from that, for I desired to make a slave a Christian.’ His answer was, ‘That it was true, There was a great difference in that,’: But, being once a Christian, he could no more account him a slave, and so lose the hold they had of them as slaves, by making them Christians; and by that means should open such a gap, as all the planters in the island would curse him. So I was struck mute, and poor Sambo kept out of the Church."


The planters who opposed the conversion of their slaves feared the possibilities of a Christianized slave, and resented the idea of sharing their religion with a heathen. During the era of the slave trade, many whites claimed that slaves were not capable of understanding Christianity. However, many were afraid that if their slaves received education they would demand their rights as human beings. For slaves to be kept in bondage, they needed to be kept in ignorance. And so, many planters believed that the teaching of Christianity would undermine the whole institution of slavery. The planters who were cruel and barbarous towards their slaves feared conversion the most. They feared the vengeance of their slaves if a revolt were to take place. Those who lived in the West Indies had witnessed the Haitian Revolution where the white French population on the island had been wiped out by rebelling blacks. The planters feared that this could happen on their island if slaves were given the notion of equality through religion, or the promise that eternal life awaited those martyred to the cause of freedom and equality on earth.

Many planters who opposed conversion also did so because they resented missionaries. Christianized slaves sometimes looked to white missionaries for protection when their master was angry with them. Female slaves in particular faced sexual advances from their masters. Those who had internalized European Christianity’s ideas about sexual purity now had another reason to reject such advances, even at the risk of infuriating violent white men. Often, females would seek the support of the missionaries and some preachers in turn denounced the planter, sometimes publicly, as a sinner and a rapist. This sort of activity brought violence down on some missions. Notable islands where persecutions of missions and Christianized slaves occurred include Dutch St. Eustatius and British St. Vincent. Both islands suffered for many years and the violence there included public floggings and hanging of converted slaves.

To see what Christianization offered through the eyes of a slave gives a completely different perspective. The slaves were religious people before Christianity came to the West Indies. Many practiced tribal African religions, and two slave religions—Obeah and Myalism—were formed in the islands. On many plantations, slaves were not allowed to practice these religions, and they were severely punished if they were caught. Therefore, it was common for religion to be practiced in seclusion, away from the master and outsiders.

When Christianity arrived in the West Indies, the most striking similarity between the native African religions and Christianity was the belief in a single higher divine presence. This monotheistic belief made it easier for slaves to relate to the Christian religion. One might argue that by converting to Christianity, slaves would be giving up a piece of their identity from Africa, but many slaves favored converting to Christianity, and for many reasons. The fact that slaves could become educated in the process of converting, especially to Protestant sects, was extremely enticing. This way they could separate themselves from other slaves and hope to accomplish more than just field work.

Through conversion, enslaved Africans could take a step toward various kinds of equality. The most important aspect of Christianity for slaves was the promise of heaven. This idea preached the notion that for all the suffering that is done in the physical world, your soul will be preserved and experience a hardship-free spiritual life. What this did for the slaves was give them hope for the future. The converted slaves’ belief in heaven allowed some to passively resist their master and focus on the afterlife. All of the master's beatings and lashings meant nothing for in heaven the slave would be rewarded and the master would be punished. In the end, the conversion to Christianity offered more positives than negatives for the West Indian slave. Perhaps the most important contribution of the Christianization of West Indian slaves was its role as a catalyst for abolishing the slave trade. Perhaps no other event in Caribbean history can compare in the contributions that Christianization brought to the culture and the people of the West Indies. This led to an "Africanization" of Christianity that is still prevalent in the culture of the Caribbean. Not only did Christianity leave its mark on the slaves, but the slaves left their mark on Christianity. 


Bisnauth, D.A. History of Religions in the Caribbean. Kingston. Kingston Pub. Ltd. 1989.

Gordon, Shirley. God Almighty Make Me Free. Bloomington. Indiana University Press. 1979.

Ligon, Richard. A True and Exact History of the Island of Barbados. 1673.

Caldecott, Alfred. The Church in the West Indies. New York. Young&Co. 1898.

Walker, F. The Call of the West Indies. London. Cargate Press. 1933.






The official position of the Congregational and the Episcopal churches in 18th century Connecticut encouraged the education of slaves in order to teach them to read the Bible and prepare for conversion to Christianity. This mission, understood as a religious duty for members of the church, applied to the education and conversion of “Indians and Negroes”, enslaved and free, particularly after it was agreed in 1729 that conversion did not make slaves free. The Episcopal Church, for example, sent out 10,000 circulars on the religious importance of teaching and converting slaves, along with teachers and Bibles for the purpose. Theodore Morris, who preached in Derby and Waterbury, reported that he had baptized two adult Negroes. In 1738, the General Assembly in Connecticut authorized the baptism of infant slaves.


Once admitted into the church, African Americans took part in all church services, but did not vote on church discipline after 1743 in the Congregational Churches. Segregation in church seating and in burial sites within graveyards was practiced in some communities, partly out of racial prejudice and partly out of financial status.


In Waterbury, slave owners were prominent members of both the Congregational and Episcopal churches; nearly all of the ministers and several deacons owned slaves. The Congregational Church was the first church in Waterbury and was the only church until 1740, when Waterbury's Episcopal Church was founded. Relations between members of the two churches were generally amicable; during the 1750s, the wives of the two ministers were sisters. During the Revolutionary War, members of the Episcopal church sided with England, creating a fair amount of strife in the town; following the war, several Waterbury Episcopalians moved to Canada.


The Congregational Church go

Mattatuck Historical Society


Religion and Slavery



Christian imperialism and the transatlantic slave trade.(Cutting Edge)

Journal of Feminist Studies in Religion

| March 22, 2008 | Cannon, Katie Geneva |

The transatlantic trade in Africans was founded on Christianity. Religion was key in motivating Prince Henry of Portugal, later called Henry, "the Navigator" (1394-1460), to put in motion Europe's aggressive and ruthless expeditions to Africa. Henry was not only the governor of Algrave Province, who managed a large economic infrastructure based on the unbridled grasp of enormous wealth from trans-Saharan commerce, but he was also the administrator of the Order of Christ, the Portuguese successor to the Knights Templar, a famous Western military order founded in the aftermath of the First Crusade at Clermont on November 27, 1095. (1) As one of the best fighting units, the Soldiers of Christ prompted a series of striking maritime exploits, ensuring the safety of Europeans who made pilgrimages to Jerusalem.

It is important to note that during this historical period, the feudal states of European countries were just beginning to unite and major religious wars were being fought between Christians and Muslims, especially the Moors in Morocco. Henry trained men to sail from Portugal, down the west coast of Africa in search of the limits to the Muslim world, in order to halt the Islamization of West Africa and to accelerate the spread of Christianity. In order to further God's intentions for humankind, Ogbu Kalu contends that within the context of religious logic, papal bulls offered rights of patronage to Henry, authorizing him to appoint clerical orders for evangelization and to fend off competing European interests. (2) According to Peter Russell, Henry the Navigator considered conversion and enslavement as interchangeable terms, experiencing no cognitive dissonance in using Christianity as a civilizing agent for making converts into slaves. (3) In "Christianity: Missionaries in Africa," Modupe Labode sums it up this way:

   The case of the Portuguese exemplifies the close relationship 
   between Crown and Church. In the Treaty of Tordesillas (1494), the 
   pope recognized Portuguese claims to Africa. The Crown was also 
   responsible for attempting to convert the indigenous people to 
   Christianity. Much of the missionary effort over the next two and 
   half centuries was conducted under Portuguese authority. The vast 
   majority of the missionaries at this time were Roman Catholic 
   priests, many of them belonged to religious orders such as the 
   Jesuits, Capuchins, and Franciscans. (4) 

Being that Prince Henry's administration is a hallmark of the rise of globalized imperialistic voyages of captivity--aided by an unholy alliance of contorted logic, I will briefly elaborate two ethical concepts, namely the missiologic of immminent parousia and the theologic of racialized normativity, embedded within the literature of slavocracy. Obeying the muse, I crafted these two cutting-edge phrases in order to critically interrogate the meaning and consequences of mission when it intersects with parousia and to examine the intricately discursive confluence of theology and race during two epiphenomena--the transatlantic slave trade and colonialism. By reassembling the logic of each concept, I destabilize the purported value-free meanings in our current biblical and theological vocabulary, so that the phrases elaborated in this essay will gain canonicity within the …




“And the LORD spake unto you out of the midst of the fire:

ye heard the voice of the words, but saw no similitude; only ye heard a voice.


“Take ye therefore good heed unto yourselves; for ye saw no manner of similitude on the day that the LORD spake unto you in Horeb out of the midst of the fire: Lest ye corrupt yourselves, and make you a graven image, the similitude of any figure, the likeness of male or female,”

Deuteronomy 4:12,15,16


“To whom will ye liken me, and make me equal, and compare me, that we may be like?

They lavish gold out of the bag, and weigh silver in the balance, and hire a goldsmith;

and he maketh it a god: they fall down, yea, they worship. They bear him upon the shoulder,

they carry him, and set him in his place, and he standeth; from his place shall he not remove:

yea, one shall cry unto him, yet can he not answer, nor save him out of his trouble.

Remember this, and shew yourselves men: bring it again to mind, O ye transgressors.

Remember the former things of old:

for I am God, and there is none else; I am God, and there is none like me,

Declaring the end from the beginning, and from ancient times the things that are not yet done, saying, My counsel shall stand, and I will do all my pleasure:”

Isaiah 46:5 - 10


From the Hebrew Scriptures and documentation in this writing, it has been proven that among the Blacks taken from the shores of Africa were also Israelites.  As we have learned, the CREATOR GOD of Israel cast great Judgment upon HIS Chosen People when HE scattered and enslaved them for rejecting HIM and for their worship of false gods. 


As we have also learned, the Slave Masters converted the Blacks out of Africa with a religion based on the worship of a mere “man”.  This “man”, JC, has done nothing to save anyone, not even those who believe in him, proving himself to be nothing more than a false god.  Thus, JC could not remove the curses upon the exiled Israelites, and under these circumstances he could not be a “lord and saviour”, as portrayed. 


It is the CREATOR GOD of Israel that has proved to be the ONE and ONLY SAVIOR of this Universe, and the Land of Israel stands Witness to HIS existence, HIS POWER, and HIS promises to the Hebrew Patriarchs to give their SEED the Land of Canaan.


“For I am the LORD thy God, the Holy One of Israel, thy Saviour: I gave Egypt for thy ransom, Ethiopia and Seba for thee.”   Isaiah 43:3


“I, even I, am the LORD; and beside me there is no saviour. I have declared, and have saved, and I have shewed, when there was no strange god among you: therefore ye are my witnesses, saith the LORD, that I am God.”   Isaiah 43:11,12


“Tell ye, and bring them near; yea, let them take counsel together: who hath declared this from ancient time? who hath told it from that time? have not I the LORD? and there is no God else beside me; a just God and a Saviour; there is none beside me. Look unto me, and be ye saved, all the ends of the earth: for I am God, and there is none else.”   Isaiah 45:21,22


I am the LORD: that is my name: and my glory will I not give to another, neither my praise to graven images. Behold, the former things are come to pass, and new things do I declare: before they spring forth I tell you of them. Sing unto the LORD a new song, and his praise from the end of the earth, ye that go down to the sea, and all that is therein; the isles, and the inhabitants thereof.”   Isaiah 42:8 - 10


“Yet I am the LORD thy God from the land of Egypt, and thou shalt know no god but me: for there is no saviour beside me. I did know thee in the wilderness, in the land of great drought.   Hosea 13:4,5


Given two billion Christians who believe in this mere “man”, JC, and pray to him, it would appear that the WORD of GOD proves him and this “New Testament” theology a lie and a fraud. 


The following information speaks volumes:


“Yet ye have forsaken me, and served other gods: wherefore I will deliver you no more. Go and cry unto the gods which ye have chosen; let them deliver you in the time of your tribulation.”   Judges 10:13,14


Jesus ?

-was born on December 25th.
-was considered a great traveling teacher and master.
-had 12 companions or disciples.
-performed miracles.
-was buried in a tomb.
-after three days he rose again.
-his resurrection was celebrated every year.
-was called “the Good Shepherd.”
-was considered “the Way, the Truth and the Light, the Redeemer, the Savior, the Messiah.”
-was identified with both the Lion and the Lamb.
-his sacred day was Sunday, “the Lord’s Day,”.
-he had his principal festival on what was later to become Easter, at which time he was resurrected.
-his religion had a Eucharist or “Lord’s Supper.”

If you guessed Jesus Christ, well, YOU’D BE WRONG!! HE WAS… MITHRA, a Roman-Persian God who existed hundreds of years before Christ.

("He who will not eat of my body and drink of my blood, so that he will be made on with me and I with him, the same shall not know salvation.” This inscription to Mithras, which parallels John 6:53-54, is inside the Vatican in the tomb of Saint Peter.)


- God was his father
- He was born in a cowshed.
- A human woman, a virgin, was his mother.
- His birth was prophesized by a star in the heavens.
- At a marriage ceremony, he performed the miracle of converting water into wine.
- He was powerless to perform miracles in his hometown.
- His followers were born-again through baptism in water.
- He rode triumphantly into a city on a donkey. Tradition records that the inhabitants waved palm leaves.
- He had 12 disciples.
- He was accused of licentious behavior.
- He was killed near the time of the Vernal Equinox, about MAR-21.
- He died “as a sacrifice for the sins of the world.”
- He was hung on a tree, stake, or cross.
- After death, he descended into hell.
- On the third day after his death, he returned to life.
- The cave where he was laid was visited by three of his female followers.
- He later ascended to heaven.
- His titles: God made flesh. Savior of the world Son of God.
- He is “God made man,” and equal to the Father.
- He will return in the last days.
- He will judge the human race at that time.
- Humans are separated from God by original sin. The godman’s sacrificial death reunites the believer with God and atones for the original sin.

Did you guess Jesus Christ? Well, again you’d be WRONG!! HE WAS… OSIRIS-DIONYSUS, an Egyptian God that existed thousands of years before Christ allegedly came around

face facts - jesus died. the only way he rose to heaven is if ‘aliens ‘ took him.


Shouldn’t JC have known that GOD’s Kingdom WAS NOT at hand (Matthew 4:17)?  And since he didn’t, if nothing else does, doesn’t that make him a fraud?



The Atlantic Slave Trade

The Bible and slavery

ChainThe Bible contains references to slavery ©


Like most holy books, the Bible can be used to support particular viewpoints, and slavery is no exception. There are numerous references to slavery in the Bible which can be interpreted to condemn or condone this practice, and even those verses which appear unambiguous, are far from clear when scrutinised.

For instance, scriptural passages from the Old Testament books of Exodus, Leviticus and Deuteronomy which appear to denounce slavery actually condemn enslavement in certain circumstances rather than slavery in general. On the other hand, although St Paul's New Testament epistles fail to condemn slavery, they argue that slaves must be treated fairly as 'brethren'.

Out of Africa

Historical records show that Islam and Christianity played an important role in enslavement in Africa. The Arab-controlled Trans-Saharan slave trade helped to institutionalise slave trading on the continent. And during the 'age of expedition', European Christians witnessed caravans loaded with Africans en-route to the Middle East. Others arriving much later in West Africa observed slavery in African societies, leading them to assume that African enslavement was intrinsic to the continent.

For many of these early European explorers, the Bible was not only regarded as infallible, it was also their primary reference tool and those looking for answers to explain differences in ethnicity, culture, and slavery, found them in Genesis 9: 24-27, which appeared to suggest that it was all a result of 'sin'.

In the Genesis passage, Africans were said to be the descendants of Ham, the son of Noah, who was cursed by his father after looking at his naked form. Moreover, in Genesis 10, the 'Table of Nations' describes the origins of the different 'races' and reveals that one of the descendants of Ham is 'Cush' - Cush and the 'Cushites' were people associated with the Nile region of North Africa.

In time, the connection Europeans made between sin, slavery, skin colour and beliefs would condemn Africans. In the Bible, physical or spiritual slavery is often a consequence of sinful actions, while darkness is associated with evil. Moreover, the Africans were subsequently considered 'heathens' bereft of Christianity, although scholars now suggest that Christianity reached Africa as early as the early 2nd century AD and that the Christian communities in North Africa were among the first in the world. However, Europeans doubtlessly refused to acknowledge the relevance of African Christianity as it appeared irreconcilable with the continent's cultural surroundings.

Religion as justification

The emergence of colonies in the Americas and the need to find labourers saw Europeans turn their attention to Africa with some arguing that the Transatlantic Slave Trade would enable Africans, especially the 'Mohammedans', to come into contact with Christianity and 'civilisation' in the Americas, albeit as slaves. It was even argued that the favourable trade winds from Africa to the Americas were evidence of this providential design.

Religion was also a driving force during slavery in the Americas. Once they arrived at their new locales the enslaved Africans were subjected to various processes to make them more compliant, and Christianity formed part of this. Ironically, although the assertion of evangelisation was one of the justifications for enslaving Africans, very little missionary work actually took place during the early years. In short, religion got in the way of a moneymaking venture by taking Africans away from their work. It also taught them potentially subversive ideas and made it hard to justify the cruel mistreatment of fellow Christians.

However, some clergy tried to push the idea that it was possible to be a 'good slave and Christian' and pointed to St Paul's epistles, which called for slaves to 'obey their masters', and St Peter's letters (1 Peter 2: 18-25), which appeared to suggest that it was wholly commendable for Christian slaves to suffer at the hands of cruel masters.

Atlantic slave trade and abolition

By Richard Reddie

Last updated 2007-01-29


In regard to the above article, it should be duly noted that the reference to Cursed be Canaan; a servant of servants shall he be unto his brethren(Genesis 9:25), has nothing to do with GOD’s curses upon the Children of Israel in Deuteronomy 28th Chapter.  Canaan is of the SEED of Ham.  The Children of Israel are of the SEED of Shem.  Although both groups were cursed, it was for two entirely different reasons. 

Also, I would like to add that while many powerful nations did enslave Blacks, Israelites and Hamites, none enslavement has been worse than the atrocities and cruelty as was that of the White Slavers.  Because of the European Slave Masters, Slaves were ethnically cleansed of their language, culture, and religion.  Tziona Yisrael, author of this document.


Historical Overview


By: Kimberly Sambol-Tosco


At the beginning of the transatlantic slave trade, African religious beliefs and practices were numerous and varied. In addition to a wide variety of polytheistic religions, a significant portion of the continent had for centuries fallen under Islamic influence. Despite this diversity, there were some common threads across cultural groups. For instance, West African societies, the largest source for American slaves, shared a belief in a Supreme Creator, a chief deity among lesser gods, to whom they prayed and made sacrifices. Through laws and customs honoring the gods, the ancestors of one's people, and the elderly, West Africans sought a harmonious balance between the natural and spiritual worlds. Further, they made music and dance vital components of their worship practices. Enslaved men and women kept the rites, rituals, and cosmologies of Africa alive in America through stories, healing arts, song, and other forms of cultural expression, creating a spiritual space apart from the white European world.

Africans and African descendents working in the early modern Atlantic commercial system were exposed to the world of European Christianity as early as the fifteenth century, when Portuguese missionaries came to the coasts. In 1667 Virginia passed a law declaring that conversion did not change the status of a person from slave to free. Other colonies passed similar laws during the seventeenth and early eighteenth of Africa. Some slaves, therefore, brought Christian beliefs with them when they were thrust into slavery. Others converted in America. During the seventeenth century blacks in the Dutch New Netherlands and Spanish Florida baptized their children and were married by the church. In part, this participation in the dominant European religion reflected (and helped to bring about) a colonial society in which blacks were more fully integrated and enjoyed greater rights than later generations of slaves would.



"Doop-Boeck" -- BAPTISMS FROM 1639 TO 1697 IN THE REFORMED DUTCH CHURCH, New York. Archives of the Collegiate Church of the City of New York.

However, slaves also saw conversion to Christianity as a road to freedom. In the early years of settlement, for instance, fugitive slaves from South Carolina, headed for Florida, where the Spanish Crown promised them freedom as a reward for conversion. Slaveholders in the British North American colonies became increasingly fearful that Christianization of slaves would lead to demands for emancipation centuries. 

During the early eighteenth century Anglican missionaries attempting to bring Christianity to slaves in the Southern colonies often found themselves butting up against not only uncooperative masters, but also resistant slaves. An unquestionable obstacle to the acceptance of Christianity among slaves was their desire to continue to adhere as much as possible to the religious beliefs and rituals of their African ancestors. Missionaries working in the South were especially displeased with slave retention of African practices such as polygamy and what they called idolatrous dancing. In fact, even blacks who embraced Christianity in America did not completely abandon Old World religion. Instead, they engaged in syncretism, blending Christian influences with traditional African rites and beliefs.


Photo of a button inscribed with a spiritual symbol

Button inscribed with a spiritual symbol. Levi Jordan Plantation, Brazoria, Texas. Courtesy of Dr. Kenneth Brown.

Symbols and objects, such as crosses, were conflated with charms carried by Africans to ward off evil spirits. Christ was interpreted as a healer similar to the priests of Africa. In the New World, fusions of African spirituality and Christianity led to distinct new practices among slave populations, including voodoo or vodun in Haiti and Spanish Louisiana. Although African religious influences were also important among Northern blacks, exposure to Old World religions was more intense in the South, where the density of the black population was greater.






As late as 1800 most slaves in the U.S. had not been converted to Christianity. In the years that followed, however, widespread Protestant Evangelicalism, emphasizing individual freedom and direct communication with God, brought about the first large-scale conversion of enslaved men and women.

Illustration of an African-American Church

African-American Church. Library of Congress, Prints & Photographs Division.

At first, itinerant ministers, captivating large audiences at revivals and camp meetings across the North and South during the middle part of the century, reached only a small percentage of the slave population with their calls to Christianity. Larger numbers of black men and women were converted during the resurgence and intensification of revivalism during the Second Great Awakening of the late eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries. At that time, Baptist and Methodist ministers appealed to the slave and free black populations, preaching a plain-styled message of hope and redemption while also catering to manners of worship that African men and women carried with them to America, including spirit possession, call-and-response singing, shouting, and dancing.

Whereas an earlier generation of evangelical preachers had opposed slavery in the South during the early nineteenth century, Protestant clergymen began to defend the institution, invoking a Christian hierarchy in which slaves were bound to obey their masters. For many slaveholders, this outlook not only made evangelical Christianity more palatable, but also provided a strong argument for converting slaves and establishing biracial churches.

Illustration of a revival meeting

Revival Meeting. Library of Congress, Prints & Photographs Division.

Even so, with much of the religious life of the slave community existing as an "invisible institution," beyond the purview of whites or formal churches, white control over African-American religious practices and spiritual beliefs was limited. Slave preachers might emphasize the need for obedience to the master while whites were present, but among other slaves they reformulated their teachings, emphasizing themes of suffering and redemption. Slaves sang spirituals filled with lyrics about salvation and references to biblical figures like Moses, who led his people to freedom. On occasion, these songs functioned even more explicitly as expressions of resistance, encoding messages about secret gatherings or carrying directions for escape.

While some planters became convinced of Christianity as a type of social control, others welcomed ministers to the slave quarters and built plantation chapels out of genuine Christian impulses. Regardless of motives, however, slaveholders remained mindful of the potential subversiveness of religion among slaves. In the 1820s and 1830s, two of the most significant slave rebellions in American history were plotted by Denmark Vesey and Nat Turner, two men driven by religious fire. In 1829, David Walker's inflammatory text, AN APPEAL TO THE COLOURED CITIZENS OF THE WORLD, not only condemned Christians who supported slavery, but also used Christianity as a way to validate slave revolt. In South Carolina, Virginia and throughout the South, these and other events resulted in regulations on black meetings and black preaching without white supervision. Biracial churches also limited the rights of black congregants.


While fear of slave insurrection led to prohibitions on black churches meeting openly in many parts in the South, the black church movement flourished in the North. As members of the Church, blacks were ostensibly the brothers and sisters of whites, equals in the eyes of God. This sentiment was instrumental in helping blacks to gain the right to be ordained as Baptist and Methodist ministers, but it did not prevent discriminatory practice within the church, including segregated seating.

Portrait of Reverand Richard Allen

Reverend Richard Allen. Mooreland-Spingarn Research Center, Howard University.

In Philadelphia, blacks established St. Thomas Episcopal Church in 1794 as the culminating response to this type of discrimination. Black churches in the North continued to grow into the nineteenth century, providing for much more than the spiritual needs of the black community. They, aided in the adjustment of new black residents, acted as mediators in the personal lives of blacks, and played a vital role in antislavery activities including the protection of fugitive slaves. Black ministers like Philadelphia's Richard Allen and Absalom Jones and Boston's Thomas Paul were among the strongest leaders in black communities.

During the Antebellum period and after the Civil War, black churches, not just in the North, but throughout the nation, offered African Americans refuge from oppression and focused on the spiritual, secular, and political concerns of the black community. Following emancipation, the church continued to exist at the center of black community life. With freedom, African-Americans rejected the second-class status they had been offered by white co-religionists and withdrew in large numbers from biracial congregations. Aided by the Freedmen's Bureau, freedmen and freedwomen pooled their resources to build greater numbers of independent black churches -- symbols of African-American demands for self-determination.

Kimberly Sambol-Tosco is a graduate student in History at the University of Pennsylvania. Her dissertation will explore the centrality of gender in African-American political identities in the North during the late eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries.









“Saying to a stock, Thou art my father; and to a stone,

Thou hast brought me forth: for they have turned their back unto me, and not their face:

but in the time of their trouble they will say, Arise, and save us.

But where are thy gods that thou hast made thee?

let them arise, if they can save thee in the time of thy trouble:

for according to the number of thy cities are thy gods, O Judah.

Wherefore will ye plead with me?

ye all have transgressed against me, saith the LORD.”

Jeremiah 2:27 - 29


“O LORD, why hast thou made us to err from thy ways, and hardened our heart from thy fear? Return for thy servants' sake, the tribes of thine inheritance.

The people of thy holiness have possessed it but a little while:

our adversaries have trodden down thy sanctuary.

We are thine: thou never barest rule over them;

they were not called by thy name.”

Isaiah 63:17 – 19


“For thus saith the LORD of hosts, the God of Israel; Behold, I will cause to cease out of this place in your eyes, and in your days, the voice of mirth, and the voice of gladness, the voice of the bridegroom, and the voice of the bride.And it shall come to pass, when thou shalt shew this people all these words, and they shall say unto thee, Wherefore hath the LORD pronounced all this great evil against us? or what is our iniquity? or what is our sin that we have committed against the LORD our God? Then shalt thou say unto them, Because your fathers have forsaken me, saith the LORD, and have walked after other gods, and have served them, and have worshipped them, and have forsaken me, and have not kept my law; And ye have done worse than your fathers; for, behold, ye walk every one after the imagination of his evil heart, that they may not hearken unto me: Therefore will I cast you out of this land into a land that ye know not, neither ye nor your fathers; and there shall ye serve other gods day and night; where I will not shew you favour.”   Jeremiah 16:9 – 13


“They are turned back to the iniquities of their forefathers, which refused to hear my words; and they went after other gods to serve them: the house of Israel and the house of Judah have broken my covenant which I made with their fathers. Therefore thus saith the LORD, Behold, I will bring evil upon them, which they shall not be able to escape; and though they shall cry unto me, I will not hearken unto them. Then shall the cities of Judah and inhabitants of Jerusalem go, and cry unto the gods unto whom they offer incense: but they shall not save them at all in the time of their trouble. For according to the number of thy cities were thy gods, O Judah; and according to the number of the streets of Jerusalem have ye set up altars to thatshameful thing, even altars to burn incense unto Baal. Therefore pray not thou for this people, neither lift up a cry or prayer for them: for I will not hear them in the time that they cry unto me for their trouble.”   Jeremiah 11:10 – 14


“Our fathers have sinned, and are not; and we have borne their iniquities. Servants have ruled over us: there is none that doth deliver us out of their hand.”   Lamentations 5:7,8




Deu. 28:65 - 67 And among these nations shalt thou find no ease, neither shall the sole of thy foot have rest: but the LORD shall give thee there a trembling heart, and failing of eyes, and sorrow of mind: And thy life shall hang in doubt before thee; and thou shalt fear day and night, and shalt have none assurance of thy life: In the morning thou shalt say, Would God it were even! and at even thou shalt say, Would God it were morning! for the fear of thine heart wherewith thou shalt fear, and for the sight of thine eyes which thou shalt see.




To keep the slaves in hand it was deemed necessary to keep them innocent of the printed page.  Otherwise they might read abolitionist news papers that were smuggled in, become dissatisfied, forge passes, or simply know too much.  Hence most states passed laws prohibiting anyone from teaching slaves to read or write.  The North Carolina statute was typical.





Whereas the teaching of slaves to read and write, has a tendency to excite dissatisfaction in their minds, and to produce insurrection and rebellion, to the manifest injury of the citizens of this State:


Be it enacted by the General Assembly of the State of North Carolina, and it is hereby enacted by the authority of the same.  That any free person, who shall hereafter teach, or attempt to teach, any slave within the State to read or write, the use of figures excepted, or shall give or sell to such slave or slaves any books or pamphlets, shall be liable to indictment in any court of record in this State having jurisdiction thereof, and upon conviction, shall, at the discretion of the court, if a white ma or woman, be fined not less than one hundred dollars, nor more than two hundred dollars, or imprisoned; and if a free person of color, shall be fined, imprisoned, or whipped, at the discretion of the court, not exceeding thirty nine lashes, nor less than twenty lashes.


II.Be it further enacted, That if any slave shall hereafter teach, or attempt to teach, any other slave to read or write, the use of figures excepted, he or she may be carried before any justice of the peace, and on conviction thereof, shall be sentenced to receive thirty nine lashes on his or her bare back

III.Be it further enacted, That the judges of the Superior Courts and the justices of the County Courts shall give this act in charge to the grand juries of their respective counties.


Acts Passed by the General Assembly of the State of North Carolina at the session of 1830 – 1831 (Raleigh, 1831, 11.

The Black American A Documentary History Third Edition by Leslie H. Fishel, Jr. and Benjamin Quarles, pp. 115




Deu. 28:68 And the LORD shall bring thee into Egypt again with ships, by the way whereof I spake unto thee, Thou shalt see it no more again: and there ye shall be sold unto your enemies for bondmen and bondwomen, and no man shall buy you.















Abraham Lincoln (1809-1865)


Abraham Lincoln - June 16, 1858

The average American today would declare Abraham Lincoln as the greatest U.S. president. However, if you would go back almost 150 years ago, Lincoln’s popularity among the citizens of the United States would be very low in the polls. When he was elected President in 1860, seven slave states left the Union to form the Confederate States of America. When the hostilities began between the North and South, four additional left the Union. A bloody civil took the lives of more than 600,000 Americans, but Lincoln understood that for the United States to be a perfect union, sacrifices had to be made.

No President in American history ever faced a greater crisis and no President ever accomplished as much. Lincoln understood that for the U.S. to be a great nation, it needed to be united and free from the sins of slavery. A moral nation that boasts life, liberty and the pursuit of happiness for all cannot be masters of human beings. With an iron resolve, patience and careful timing, Lincoln gave back an America that was indeed free and whole.

Born into poverty in a log cabin in Kentucky just short of 200 years ago, Lincoln only had one year of formal education. He taught himself how to read and eventually became a lawyer. Equipped with a quit wit and powerful speaking abilities, masses would come to hear the words of this remarkable man. He entered into the political world and soon became a favorite among Republicans and nominated him as a candidate for president. Through a series of events, a once illiterate individual became the most powerful person in the U.S.

What started as a war to preserve the Union and became a battle to end slavery. In 1863, Lincoln issued the Emancipation Proclamation, officially ending slavery. Lincoln urged black males to join the Union forces as soldiers and sailors. Nearly two hundred thousand African Americans fought for the Union cause.

The humane character of Lincoln was best demonstrated by his policy of reconciliation with the South, as expressed in his second inaugural address on March 4, 1865. He spoke of “malice toward none" and "charity for all.” A few weeks later death from an assassin’s bullet cut short a great man’s life. Master of combining practical politics with moral principles, in only four years as president he had established why he is one of the few Americans who truly ‘belong to the ages’.

This chapter was taken out of the Immigration Bible by Zila Katz and Esq.Dotan Cohen, Adv.

Facts about Abraham Lincoln – the President Who Put an End to ...






Lincoln’s proposal for the emancipation of Washington, D.C. Negroes became law in April.  Compensation of not more than $300 was awarded for each slave and $100,000 was provided for the emigration of freedmen to Haiti or Liberia.


In April, Congress passed Roscoe Conkling’s resolution that the U.S. would cooperate with any state adopting a pan of gradual emancipation and compensation.


In May, the House of Representatives failed to pass a law to confiscate and free all slaves belonging to rebels.


President Lincoln, in his public reply to an editorial by Horace Greeley as to the purpose of the war, said, “My paramount object in this struggle is to save the Union, and not either to save or to destroy slavery.  If I could save the Union without freeing any slaves I would do it; if I could save it y freeing all the slaves I would do it; and if I could do it by freeing some and leaving others alone, I would also do that.”


The Chronological History of the Negro in America, by Peter M. Bergman pp. 228



BoNafide Chosen Iisraeliteprincess



Most free blacks at this juncture lived along the docks and wharves and in alleys.  Wherever they lived, people wanted them to go away.  Time and time again, whites herded blacks into groups and pointed to the city limits.  Time and time again, immigrants, fresh from the boats, cracked their skulls and burned their homes and churches.  Some whites said openly that the only solution to the “Negro problem” was the “Indian solution”.  And Indianian said, “It would be better to kill them off at once, for there is no other way to get rid of them”.  He added:  “We know how the Puritans did with the Indians, who were infinitely more magnanimous and less impudent than the colored race.”   Before the Mayflower A History of Black America by Lerone Bennett, Jr.  pp. 181



The Black Codes were regulations written into the State Constitutions that regulated Negro life.  Generally they made Negroes subject to virtual slavery if convicted of vagrancy.  Children separated from the parents could be made slaves.  Negroes could come into court as witnesses only in cases in which Negroes were involved.  Access to land was limited, and the right to bear arms was forbidden.  Negro employment was limited to contract labor.  Some of these Codes were repealed under Northern pressure…

The property provision of the Mississippi Black Codes said that Negroes were forbidden to rent or lease land, except in incorporated towns or cities, in which places the corporate authorities controlled the land.

In a Louisiana Black Code, all agricultural workers were required to make contracts with employers during the first ten days of each January; workers could not leave their employers until the contract expired; refusal to work would be punished by forced labor on public works.  The Negro was required to work 10 hours a day in summer and 9 hours a day in winter.

The rules for contracting Negro servants to white masters in a South Carolina Black Code were:  Masters were allowed to work servants under 18 “moderately”.  Over 18, servants could be whipped on judicial authority.  Wages and time period had to be specified in writing…   The Chronological History of the Negro in America, by Peter M. Bergman pps. 245,246


















Jim Crow Museum


Who Was Jim Crow?                 


minstrelThe name Jim Crow is often used to describe the segregation laws, rules, and customs which arose after Reconstruction ended in 1877 and continued until the mid-1960s. How did the name become associated with these "Black Codes" which took away many of the rights which had been granted to Blacks through the 13th, 14th, and 15th Amendments?


"Come listen all you galls and boys,
I'm going to sing a little song,
My name is Jim Crow.
Weel about and turn about and do jis so,
Eb'ry time I weel about I jump Jim Crow."


These words are from the song, "Jim Crow," as it appeared in sheet music written by Thomas Dartmouth "Daddy" Rice. Rice, a struggling "actor" (he did short solo skits between play scenes) at the Park Theater in New York, happened upon a Black person singing the above song -- some accounts say it was an old Black slave who walked with difficulty, others say it was a ragged Black stable boy. Whether modeled on an old man or a young boy we will never know, however, it is clear that in 1828 Rice appeared on stage as "Jim Crow" -- an exaggerated, highly stereotypical Black character.

Rice, a White man, was one of the first performers to wear blackface makeup -- his skin was darkened with burnt cork. His Jim Crow song-and-dance routine was an astounding success that took him from Louisville to Cincinnati to Pittsburg to Philadelphia and finally to New York in 1832. He then performed to great acclaim in London and Dublin. By then "Jim Crow" was a stock character in minstrel shows, along with counterparts Jim Dandy and Zip Coon. Rice's subsequent blackface characters were Sambos, Coons, and Dandies. White audiences were receptive to the portrayals of Blacks as singing, dancing, grinning fools.

Amos and AndyOld Reliable







By 1838, the term "Jim Crow" was being used as a collective racial epithet for Blacks, not as offensive as nigger, but as offensive as coon or darkie. Obviously, the popularity of minstrel shows aided the spread of Jim Crow as a racial slur. This use of the term did not last past a half century. By the end of the 19th Century, the words Jim Crow were less likely to be used to derisively describe Blacks; instead, the phrase Jim Crow was being used to describe laws and customs which oppressed Blacks.

The minstrel show was one of the first native forms of American entertainment, and Rice was rightly regarded as the "Father of American minstrelsy." He had many imitators. In 1843, four White men from New York, billed as the "Virginia Minstrels," darkened their faces and imitated the singing and dancing of Blacks. They used violins, castanets, banjos, bones and tambourines. Their routine was successful and they were invited to tour the country. In 1845, the Christy Minstrels (for whom Stephen Foster wrote some of his most popular songs) originated many features of the minstrel show, including the seating of the blackface performers in a semicircle on stage, with the tambourine player (Mr. Tambo) at one end, and the bones player (Mr. Bones) at the other; the singing of songs, called Ethiopian melodies, with harmonized choruses; and the humorous banter of jokes between the endmen and the performer in the middle seat (Mr. Interlocutor). These performers were sometimes called "Ethiopian Delineators" and the shows were popularly referred to as "Coon Shows."

Rice, and his imitators, by their stereotypical depictions of Blacks, helped to popularize the belief that Blacks were lazy, stupid, inherently less human, and unworthy of integration. During the years that Blacks were being victimized by lynch mobs, they were also victimized by the racist caricatures propagated through novels, sheet music, theatrical plays, and minstrel shows. Ironically, years later when Blacks replaced White minstrels, the Blacks also "blackened" their faces, thereby pretending to be Whites pretending to be Blacks. They, too, performed the Coon Shows which dehumanized Blacks and helped establish the desirability of racial segregation.

Daddy Rice, the original Jim Crow, became rich and famous because of his skills as a minstrel. However, he lived an extravagant lifestyle, and when he died in New York on September 19, 1860, he was in poverty.1

make-up kitThe minstrel shows were popular between 1850 and 1870, but they lost much of their national popularity with the coming of motion pictures and radios. Unfortunately for Blacks, the minstrel shows continued in small towns, and worse, caricatured portrayals of Blacks found greater expression in motion pictures and radios.

Dr. David Pilgrim, Professor of Sociology

Ferris State University

Sept., 2000

1 For further information on minstrels please read the following:

Bean, Annemarie, ed. Inside the Minstrel Mask: Readings in Nineteenth-Century Blackface Minstrelsy. Weslyan University Press, 1996.

Cockrell, Dale. Demons of Disorder: Early Blackface Minstrels and Their World. Cambridge Studies in America Theatre and Drama, No 8), 1997.

Levy, Lester S. Picture the Songs: Lithographs from the Sheet Music of Nineteenth-Century America. Baltimore: John Hopkins University Press, 1976.

Toll, Robert C. Blacking Up: The Minstrel show in Nineteenth-Century America. Oxford University Press, 1974.

Objectives of the Jim Crow Museum

Contact Dr. David Pilgrim, Curator

  • Collect, exhibit and preserve objects and collections related to racial segregation, civil rights and anti-Black caricatures.
  • Promote the scholarly examination of historical and contemporary expressions of racism.
  • Serve as a teaching resource for Ferris State University courses which deal, directly or indirectly, with the issues of race and ethnicity.
  • Serve as an educational resource for scholars and teachers at the state, national and international levels.
  • Promote racial understanding and healing.
  • Serve as a resource for civil rights and human rights organizations.


Selected Videos

JCM Fundraising Video

Why I Collect Racist Objects

Future Home of the JCM

Our Values

Our Vision

About the Museum


Who Was Jim Crow?

What Was Jim Crow?

Related Links Other Information

Jezebel Stereotype

Brute Caricature

Mammy Caricature

Picaninny Caricature

Coon Caricature

Tom Caricature

The Tragic Mulatto

Nigger and Caricatures

Golliwog Caricature

Racist Cartoons

New Racist Forms

Sapphire Caricature

Nat Caricature

JCM Virtual Tour

Brothers, and Other Essays

Buy the Award-Winning DVD ~  Order DVD Online

Donate Here and Support the Jim Crow Museum

More Images of Racial Stereotypes:

Women        Children        Men        Other        HOME


Jim Crow Museum

Jim Crow Museum at Ferris State University:
"A Little Room With A Big Purpose"




(printed 1962,1988)

(Lynchings from April 17, 1880 to May 27, 1961)


April 17, 1880



WEST POINT, N.Y., Apr. 15 – James Webster Smith, the first colored cadet in the history of West Point, was recently taken from his bed, gagged, bound, and severely beaten, and then his ears were slit.  He says that he cannot identify his assailants.  The other cadets claim that he did it himself.  Pp. 9



November 22, 1895


MADISONVILLE, Tex., Nov. 21 – News has been received here of the lynching if a Negro in this part of Madison County on Tuesday night.  He was accused of riding his horse over a little white girl and injuring her.  On Wednesday it was discovered that the wrong Negro had been gotten hold of by the mob.  The guilty one made his escape.  Pp. 9 






March 13, 1935




SLAYDEN, Miss., Mar. 12-Ab Young, a negro, was hanged to an oak tree in a schoolyard three miles east of here this afternoon by a mob of about 50 white men.


The negro had been sought in connection with the shooting to death Saturday night of Hardy Mackie, 45, a state highway worker.


He was placed atop a small coach automobile, with a rope around his neck.  The other end of the rope was suspended to a tree.  The car was driven out from under him and he was left dangling at the end of the rope.


He met death with a hymn upon his lips.  Pp. 225




[The following photographs of  hangings have nothing to do with the above article:]



Without Sanctuary




















Without Sanctuary


Searching through America's past for the last 25 years, collector James Allen uncovered an extraordinary visual legacy: photographs and postcards taken as souvenirs at lynchings throughout America. With essays by Hilton Als, Leon Litwack, Congressman John Lewis and James Allen, these photographs have been published as a book "Without Sanctuary" by Twin Palms Publishers . Features will be added to this site over time and it will evolve into an educational tool. Please be aware before entering the site that much of the material is very disturbing. We welcome your comments and input through the forum section.

Experience the images as a flash movie with narrative comments by James Allen, or as a gallery of photos which will grow to over 100 photos in coming weeks. Participate in a forum about the images, and contact us if you know of other similar postcards and photographs.

2000-2005 Collection of James Allen and John Littlefield

Journal E: Without Sanctuary: Lynching Photography in America

Website featuring photographs and descriptions from the book Without Sanctuary
by Hilton Als and James Allen, with postcards of lynchings in America. - 5k




Recent racial violence against Blacks is on the rise.  From distant parts of the United States, reports of racial violence fill the daily news.  That Blacks are killed in the streets of New York while being beaten and harassed in the hills of Georgia, should come as no surprise.  America has a long but seldom discussed history of violence against its Black citizens.  The typical American response has been to ignore this history.  Unfortunately this further obscures a historical problem which can only be resolved through defensive vigilance and an awareness of the scope and nature of the problem…

First published in 1962, 100 YEARS OF LYNCHINGS, is as relevant todat as it was then.  It presents the reader with vivid newspaper accounts of a “red record of racial atrocities.”  It is a simple and straight forward presentation.  Lacking narration, the news articles speak for themselves.  Through them we witness a history of racial atrocities that we cannot afford to forget.  Ginzburg skillfully selected articles from a wide range of papers, large and small, radical and conservative, white and Black.  Through them, he has creatd a documentary of lynchings.  The collection of articles which extend into the 1960s provides a sobering view of American history.  Few who read the book will remain unaffected by this view…. (back cover)



July 27, 1946




MONROE, Ga., July 26 – Two young Negroes, one a veteran just returned from the war, and their wives were lined up last night near a secluded road and shot dad by an unmasked band of twenty white men.


The ghastly details of the multiple lynching were told today by Loy Harrison, a well-to-do white farmer who had just hired the Negroes to work on his farm.  Harrison was bringing the Negroes to his farm when his car was waylaid by the mob eight miles from Monroe.  Questioning of one of the Negroes by the mob indicated, Harrison said, that he was suspected of having stabbed his former employer, a white man.  The Negroes, Roger Malcolm and George Dorsey, both 27, were removed from the car and led down a side road.


The women, who were sisters and who had just recently married Malcolm and Dorsey, began to scream.  Then a mob member said that one of the women had recognized him.


“Get those damned women, too,” the mob leader shouted.


Several of the men then came back and dragged the shrieking women from the automobile.  A few moments later Mr. Harrison heard the shots-many of them and the mob dispersed.


The grotesquely sprawled bodies were found in a clump of bushes beside a little-used sideroad, the upper parts of the bodies scarcely recognizable from the mass of bullet holes.


Dorsey’s mother, Monia Williams, said that her son had just been discharged after five years in the Army and that she had received his discharge button in the mail just this week….pps. 238,239




July 29, 1945





MONROE, GA., July 28- Close relatives of two of the four Negroes killed by a white mob here Thursday failed to appear at funeral services today and friends voice the belief that they were “too frightened” to appear.  Pps. 240,241





September 1, 1955





GREENWOOD, Miss., Aug. 31- The body of a 15-year-old Chicago Negro who had disappeared after he allegedly made “fresh” remarks to a white woman was found floating in the Tallahatchie River today.  He had been shot through the head.  Two white men, one of them the husand of the woman allegedly insulted by the boy, earlier had been charged with kidnapping the victim, Emmet Till, from the home of his relatives here.


In New York, Roy Wilkins, executive secretary of the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People, branded the slaying a “lynching”.  Pps. 240,241




What Was Jim Crow?


No Dogs, Negros, MexicansJim Crow was the name of the racial caste system which operated primarily, but not exclusively in southern and border states, between 1877 and the mid-1960s. Jim Crow was more than a series of rigid anti-Black laws. It was a way of life. Under Jim Crow, African Americans were relegated to the status of second class citizens. Jim Crow represented the legitimization of anti-Black racism. Many Christian ministers and theologians taught that Whites were the Chosen people, Blacks were cursed to be servants, and God supported racial segregation.


Seated in Rear


Craniologists, eugenicists, phrenologists, and Social Darwinists, at every educational level, buttressed the belief that Blacks were innately intellectually and culturally inferior to Whites. Pro-segregation politicians gave eloquent speeches on the great danger of integration: the mongrelization of the White race. Newspaper and magazine writers routinely referred to Blacks as niggers, coons, and darkies; and worse, their articles reinforced anti-Black stereotypes. Even children's games portrayed Blacks as inferior beings (see "From Hostility to Reverence: 100 Years of African-American Imagery in Games"). All major societal institutions reflected and supported the oppression of Blacks.

The Jim Crow system was undergirded by the following beliefs or rationalizations: Whites were superior to Blacks in all important ways, including but not limited to intelligence, morality, and civilized behavior; sexual relations between Blacks and Whites would produce a mongrel race which would destroy America; treating Blacks as equals would encourage interracial sexual unions; any activity which suggested social equality encouraged interracial sexual relations; if necessary, violence must be used to keep Blacks at the bottom of the racial hierarchy. The following Jim Crow etiquette norms show how inclusive and pervasive these norms were:

  1. A Black male could not offer his hand (to shake hands) with a White male because it implied being socially equal. Obviously, a Black male could not offer his hand or any other part of his body to a White woman, because he risked being accused of rape.
  2. Blacks and Whites were not supposed to eat together. If they did eat together, Whites were to be served first, and some sort of partition was to be placed between them.
  3. Under no circumstance was a Black male to offer to light the cigarette of a White female -- that gesture implied intimacy.
  4. Blacks were not allowed to show public affection toward one another in public, especially kissing, because it offended Whites.
  5. Jim Crow etiquette prescribed that Blacks were introduced to Whites, never Whites to Blacks. For example: "Mr. Peters (the White person), this is Charlie (the Black person), that I spoke to you about."
  6. Whites did not use courtesy titles of respect when referring to Blacks, for example, Mr., Mrs., Miss., Sir, or Ma'am. Instead, Blacks were called by their first names. Blacks had to use courtesy titles when referring to Whites, and were not allowed to call them by their first names.
  7. If a Black person rode in a car driven by a White person, the Black person sat in the back seat, or the back of a truck.
  8. White motorists had the right-of-way at all intersections.

Stetson Kennedy, the author of Jim Crow Guide, offered these simple rules that Blacks were supposed to observe in conversing with Whites:

  1. Never assert or even intimate that a White person is lying.
  2. Never impute dishonorable intentions to a White person.
  3. Never suggest that a White person is from an inferior class.
  4. Never lay claim to, or overly demonstrate, superior knowledge or intelligence.
  5. Never curse a White person.
  6. Never laugh derisively at a White person.
  7. Never comment upon the appearance of a White female.1



restroom signJim Crow etiquette operated in conjunction with Jim Crow laws (black codes). When most people think of Jim Crow they think of laws (not the Jim Crow etiquette) which excluded Blacks from public transport and facilities, juries, jobs, and neighborhoods. The passage of the 13th, 14th, and 15th Amendments to the Constitution had granted Blacks the same legal protections as Whites. However, after 1877, and the election of Republican Rutherford B. Hayes, southern and border states began restricting the liberties of Blacks. Unfortunately for Blacks, the Supreme Court helped undermine the Constitutional protections of Blacks with the infamous Plessy v. Ferguson (1896) case, which legitimized Jim Crow laws and the Jim Crow way of life.





In 1890, Louisiana passed the "Separate Car Law," which purported to aid passenger comfort by creating "equal but separate" cars for Blacks and Whites. This was a ruse. No public accommodations, including railway travel, provided Blacks with equal facilities. The Louisiana law made it illegal for Blacks to sit in coach seats reserved for Whites, and Whites could not sit in seats reserved for Blacks. In 1891, a group of Blacks decided to test the Jim Crow law. They had Homer A. Plessy, who was seven-eights White and one-eighth Black (therefore, Black), sit in the White-only railroad coach. He was arrested. Plessy's lawyer argued that Louisiana did not have the right to label one citizen as White and another Black for the purposes of restricting their rights and privileges. In Plessy, the Supreme Court stated that so long as state governments provided legal process and legal freedoms for Blacks, equal to those of Whites, they could maintain separate institutions to facilitate these rights. The Court, by a 7-2 vote, upheld the Louisiana law, declaring that racial separation did not necessarily mean an abrogation of equality. In practice, Plessy represented the legitimization of two societies: one White, and advantaged; the other, Black, disadvantaged and despised.

Blacks were denied the right to vote by grandfather clauses (laws that restricted the right to vote to people whose ancestors had voted before the Civil War), poll taxes (fees charged to poor Blacks), white primaries (only Democrats could vote, only Whites could be Democrats), and literacy tests ("Name all the Vice Presidents and Supreme Court Justices throughout America's history"). Plessy sent this message to southern and border states: Discrimination against Blacks is acceptable.

drinking fountainsJim Crow states passed statutes severely regulating social interactions between the races. Jim Crow signs were placed above water fountains, door entrances and exits, and in front of public facilities. There were separate hospitals for Blacks and Whites, separate prisons, separate public and private schools, separate churches, separate cemeteries, separate public restrooms, and separate public accommodations. In most instances, the Black facilities were grossly inferior -- generally, older, less-well-kept. In other cases, there were no Black facilities -- no Colored public restroom, no public beach, no place to sit or eat. Plessy gave Jim Crow states a legal way to ignore their constitutional obligations to their Black citizens.

ticketJim Crow laws touched every aspect of everyday life. For example, in 1935, Oklahoma prohibited Blacks and Whites from boating together. Boating implied social equality. In 1905, Georgia established separate parks for Blacks and Whites. In 1930, Birmingham, Alabama, made it illegal for Blacks and Whites to play checkers or dominoes together. Here are some of the typical Jim Crow laws, as compiled by the Martin Luther King, Jr., National Historic Site Interpretive Staff:

riprapThe Jim Crow laws and system of etiquette were undergirded by violence, real and threatened. Blacks who violated Jim Crow norms, for example, drinking from the White water fountain or trying to vote, risked their homes, their jobs, even their lives. Whites could physically beat Blacks with impunity. Blacks had little legal recourse against these assaults because the Jim Crow criminal justice system was all-White: police, prosecutors, judges, juries, and prison officials. Violence was instrumental for Jim Crow. It was a method of social control. The most extreme forms of Jim Crow violence were lynchings.

Lynchings were public, often sadistic, murders carried out by mobs. Between 1882, when the first reliable data were collected, and 1968, when lynchings had become rare, there were 4,730 known lynchings, including 3,440 Black men and women. Most of the victims of Lynch-Law were hanged or shot, but some were burned at the stake, castrated, beaten with clubs, or dismembered. In the mid-1800s, Whites constituted the majority of victims (and perpetrators); however, by the period of Radical Reconstruction, Blacks became the most frequent lynching victims. This is an early indication that lynching was used as an intimidation tool to keep Blacks, in this case the newly-freedmen, "in their places." The great majority of lynchings occurred in southern and border states, where the resentment against Blacks ran deepest. According to the social economist Gunnar Myrdal: "The southern states account for nine-tenths of the lynchings. More than two thirds of the remaining one-tenth occurred in the six states which immediately border the South."3

Many Whites claimed that although lynchings were distasteful, they were necessary supplements to the criminal justice system because Blacks were prone to violent crimes, especially the rapes of White women. Arthur Raper investigated nearly a century of lynchings and concluded that approximately one-third of all the victims were falsely accused.4

Under Jim Crow any and all sexual interactions between Black men and White women was illegal, illicit, socially repugnant, and within the Jim Crow definition of rape. Although only 19.2 percent of the lynching victims between 1882 to 1951 were even accused of rape, Lynch law was often supported on the popular belief that lynchings were necessary to protect White women from Black rapists. Myrdal refutes this belief in this way: "There is much reason to believe that this figure (19.2) has been inflated by the fact that a mob which makes the accusation of rape is secure from any further investigation; by the broad Southern definition of rape to include all sexual relations between Negro men and white women; and by the psychopathic fears of white women in their contacts with Negro men."5 Most Blacks were lynched for demanding civil rights, violating Jim Crow etiquette or laws, or in the aftermath of race riots.

Lynchings were most common in small and middle-sized towns where Blacks often were economic competitors to the local Whites. These Whites resented any economic and political gains made by Blacks. Lynchers were seldomly arrested, and if arrested, rarely convicted. Raper estimated that "at least one-half of the lynchings are carried out with police officers participating, and that in nine-tenths of the others the officers either condone or wink at the mob action."6 Lynching served many purposes: it was cheap entertainment; it served as a rallying, uniting point for Whites; it functioned as an ego-massage for low-income, low-status Whites; it was a method of defending White domination and helped stop or retard the fledgling social equality movement.

Lynch mobs directed their hatred against one (sometimes several) victims. The victim was an example of what happened to a Black man who tried to vote, or who looked at a White woman, or who tried to get a White man's job. Unfortunately for Blacks, sometimes the mob was not satisfied to murder a single or several victims. Instead, in the spirit of pogroms, the mobs went into Black communities and destroyed additional lives and property. Their immediate goal was to drive out -- through death or expulsion -- all Blacks; the larger goal was to maintain, at all costs, White supremacy. These pogrom-like actions are often referred to as riots; however, Gunnar Myrdal was right when he described these "riots" as "a terrorization or massacre...a mass lynching."7 Interestingly, these mass lynchings were primarily urban phenomena, whereas the lynching of single victims was primarily a rural phenomena.

James Weldon Johnson, the famous Black writer, labeled 1919 as "The Red Summer." It was red from racial tension; it was red from bloodletting. During the summer of 1919, there were race riots in Chicago, Illinois; Knoxville and Nashville, Tennessee; Charleston, South Carolina; Omaha, Nebraska; and two dozen other cities. W.E.B. DuBois, the Black social scientist and civil rights activist, wrote: "During that year seventy-seven Negroes were lynched, of whom one was a woman and eleven were soldiers; of these, fourteen were publicly burned, eleven of them being burned alive. That year there were race riots large and small in twenty-six American cities including thirty-eight killed in a Chicago riot of August; from twenty-five to fifty in Phillips County, Arkansas; and six killed in Washington."8

The riots of 1919 were not the first or last "mass lynchings" of Blacks, as evidenced by the race riots in Wilmington, North Carolina (1898); Atlanta, Georgia (1906); Springfield, Illinois (1908); East St. Louis, Illinois (1917); Tulsa, Oklahoma (1921); and Detroit, Michigan (1943). Joseph Boskin, author of Urban Racial Violence, claimed that the riots of the 1900s had the following traits:

  1. In each of the race riots, with few exceptions, it was White people that sparked the incident by attacking Black people.
  2. In the majority of the riots, some extraordinary social condition prevailed at the time of the riot: prewar social changes, wartime mobility, post-war adjustment, or economic depression.
  3. The majority of the riots occurred during the hot summer months.
  4. Rumor played an extremely important role in causing many riots. Rumors of some criminal activity by Blacks against Whites perpetuated the actions of the White mobs.
  5. The police force, more than any other institution, was invariably involved as a precipitating cause or perpetuating factor in the riots. In almost every one of the riots, the police sided with the attackers, either by actually participating in, or by failing to quell the attack.
  6. In almost every instance, the fighting occurred within the Black community.9

Boskin omitted the following: the mass media, especially newspapers often published inflammatory articles about "Black criminals" immediately before the riots; Blacks were not only killed, but their homes and businesses were looted, and many who did not flee were left homeless; and, the goal of the White rioters, as was true of White lynchers of single victims, was to instill fear and terror into Blacks, thereby buttressing White domination. The Jim Crow hierarchy could not work without violence being used against those on the bottom rung. George Fredrickson, a historian, stated it this way: "Lynching represented...a way of using fear and terror to check 'dangerous' tendencies in a black community considered to be ineffectively regimented or supervised. As such it constituted a confession that the regular institutions of a segregated society provided an inadequate measure of day-to-day control."10

Many Blacks resisted the indignities of Jim Crow, and, far too often, they paid for their bravery with their lives.

Dr. David Pilgrim, Professor of Sociology

Ferris State University

Sept., 2000

1 Kennedy, Stetson. Jim Crow Guide: The Way It Was. Boca Raton: Florida Atlantic University Press, 1959/1990, pp.216-117.

2 This list was derived from a larger list composed by the Martin Luther King, Jr., National Historic Site Interpretive Staff. Last Updated January 5, 1998. The web address is: http// crowlaws.htm.

3 Gunnar Myrdal, An American Dilemma. New York: 1944, pp. 560-561.

4 Myrdal, op. cit., .561.

5 Ibid., pp.561-562.

6 Arthur. A. Rapier, The Tragedy of Lynching. Chapel Hill, 1933, pp.13-14.

7 Myrdal, op.cit., p.566.

8 W.E.B. Dubois, Originally in Dust of Dawn. Cited here from DuBois: Writings, Nathan Huggins (editor). New York: Viking Press, 1986, p.747.

9 Joseph Boskin, Urban Racial Violence. Beverly Hills, 1976, pp.14-15.

10 George M. Fredrickson, The Black Image In The White Mind: The Debate on Afro-American Character and Destiny 1817-1914. New York: Harper & Row, 1971, p.272.

What Was Jim Crow?




About the Ku Klux Klan


The Ku Klux Klan is a racist, anti-Semitic movement with a commitment to extreme violence to achieve its goals of racial segregation and white supremacy. Of all the types of right-wing hate groups that exist in the United States, the Klan remains the one with the greatest number of national and local organizations around the country.

More than 40 different Klan groups exist, many having multiple chapters, or “klaverns,” including a few that boast a presence in a large number of states. There are over a hundred different Klan chapters around the country, with a combined strength of members and associates that may total around 5,000.

After a period of relative quiet, Ku Klux Klan activity has spiked noticeably upwards in 2006, as Klan groups have attempted to exploit fears in America over gay marriage, perceived “assaults” on Christianity, crime and especially immigration.

KKK Symbol
KKK Symbol

Founder: Confederate Civil War veterans Captain John C. Lester, Major James R. Crowe, John D. Kennedy, Calvin Jones, Richard R. Reed, Frank O. McCord
Founded: 1866
Headquarters: Each different Klan group has its own headquarters.
Background: The Klan has fragmented into more than 40 separate factions of varying sizes. There is no “one” Ku Klux Klan.
Estimated size: There are over a hundred different chapters in the various Klan organizations, with varying memberships. Overall, there may be as many as 5,000 members and associates of the Ku Klux Klan. The Klan is strongest in the South and in the Midwest.
Criminal Activity: The Klan has a relatively high association with criminal activity, ranging from hate crimes to acts of domestic terrorism.
Media: Mass mailings, leafleting and the Internet
Strategy: Public rallies and protests, "adopt a highway" programs and other attention getting stunts, Internet
Ideology: White supremacist ideology not far from that of neo-Nazis, although it tends to be more Christian-oriented and to stress nativism.
Affiliations: National Socialist Movement, Aryan Nations, Christian Identity groups
Financial support: Little. Most funding comes from membership dues and sales of Klan paraphernalia.

The Ku Klux Klan first emerged following the Civil War as America’s first true terrorist group. Since its inception, the Ku Klux Klan has seen several cycles of growth and collapse, and in some of these cycles the Klan has been more extreme than in others. In all of its incarnations, however, the Klan has maintained its dual heritage of hate and violence.

At first, the Ku Klux Klan focused its anger and violence on African-Americans, on white Americans who stood up for them, and against the federal government which supported their rights. Subsequent incarnations of the Klan, which typically emerged in times of rapid social change, added more categories to its enemies list, including Jews, Catholics (less so after the 1970s), homosexuals, and different groups of immigrants.

In most of these cases, these perceived enemies were minority groups that came into direct economic competition with the lower- and working-class whites that formed the core constituency of the Klan in most of its incarnations.

The Ku Klux Klan was overshadowed in the late 1990s and early 2000s by growing neo-Nazi activity; however, by 2005 neo-Nazi groups had fallen on hard times, with many groups collapsing or fragmenting. This collapse has helped create a rise of racist skinhead activity, but has also provided new opportunities for Klan groups.

In addition, in the early 2000s, many communities in the United States began to experiences a significant influx of immigrants, especially Hispanics, for the first time in their histories. A single-issue movement opposing immigration has helped create fear and anxiety about immigration in the minds of many Americans.

Many Ku Klux Klan groups have attempted to take advantage of that fear and uncertainty, using anti-immigration sentiments for recruitment and propaganda purposes, and to attract publicity.


Ku Klux Klan -- Extremism in America




Dr. Simon Baruch (b. 1840) was a surgeon and captain in the confederate Army and, according to Harry Simonhoff, “He went through the terrors of Reconstruction, and as a secret member of the origina Ku Klux Klan he wore at night its long white flowing robes emblazoned with a scarlet cross.   The Secret Relationship Between Blacks and Jews by the Nation of Islam, pp. 218



The Ku Klux Klan

Period: 1920s

After the Civil War, the Ku Klux Klan, led by former Confederate General Nathaniel Bedford Forrest, used terrorist tactics to intimidate former slaves. A new version of the Ku Klux Klan arose during the early 1920s. Throughout this time period, immigration, fear of radicalism, and a revolution in morals and manners fanned anxiety in large parts of the country. Roman Catholics, Jews, African Americans, and foreigners were only the most obvious targets of the Klan's fear-mongering. Bootleggers and divorcees were also targets.

Contributing to the Klan's growth was a post-war depression in agriculture, the migration of African Americans into Northern cities, and a swelling of religious bigotry and nativism in the years after World War I. Klan members considered themselves defenders of Prohibition, traditional morality, and true Americanism. The Klan efforts were directed against African Americans, Jews, Catholics, and immigrants.

In 1920, two Atlanta publicists, Edward Clarke, a former Atlanta journalist, and Bessie Tyler, a former madam, took over an organization that had formed to promote World War I fund drives. At that time, the organization had 3,000 members. In three years they built it into the Southern Publicity Association, a national organization with three million members. After the war, they bolstered membership in the Klan by giving Klansmen part of the $10 induction fee of every new member they signed up.

During the early 1920s, the Klan helped elect 16 U.S. Senators and many Representatives and local officials. By 1924, when the Klan had reached its peak in numbers and influence, it claimed to control 24 of the nation's 48 state legislatures. That year it succeeded in blocking the nomination of Al Smith, a New York Catholic, at the Democratic National Convention.

The three million members of the Klan after World War I were quite open in their activities. Many were small-business owners, independent professionals, clerical workers, and farmers. Members marched in parades, patronized Klan merchants, and voted for Klan-endorsed political candidates. The Klan was particularly strong in the Deep South, Oklahoma, and Indiana. Historians once considered the Ku Klux Klan a group of marginal misfits, rural traditionalists unable to cope with the coming of a modern urban society. But recent scholarship shows that Klan members were a cross-section of native Protestants; many were women, and many came from urban areas.

The leader of Indiana's Klan was David Curtis Stephenson, a Texan who had worked as a printer's apprentice in Oklahoma before becoming a salesman in Indiana. Given control of the Klan in Indiana in 1922 and the right to organize in 20 other states, he soon became a millionaire from the sale of robes and hoods. A crowd estimated at 200,000 attended one Klan gathering in Kokomo, Ind. in 1923.

A public defender of Prohibition and womanhood, Stephenson was, in private, a heavy drinker and a womanizer. In 1925, he was tried, convicted, and sentenced to life in prison for kidnapping and sexually assaulting 28-year-old Madge Oberholtzer, who ran a state program to combat illiteracy. Stephenson's downfall, which was followed by the indictment and prosecution of many Klan-supported politicians on corruption charges, led members to abandon the organization in droves. Within a year, the number of Klansmen in Indiana fell from 350,000 to 15,000. By 1930, the Klan had just 45,000 members in the nation as a whole.

The Ku Klux Klan - Digital History



1 of 12 Next


Donning Klan Robes

Donning Klan Robes

The Department of Homeland Security recently issued a chilling report: Americans, it said, can expect an upsurge in "rightwing extremism" from White nationalists, militias, and groups like the Ku Klux Klan. The Klan, of course, has had a hand in some of the nation's most infamous acts of racial terror and murder. But what does the KKK look like today? Photographer Anthony Karen has documented the modern-day Klan in their homes, at rallies, and at Klan gatherings, taking us deep inside a world we would otherwise never see -- a world most of us might not even want to know about. The unnerving photos featured here, exclusively on, are from his book, "The Invisible Empire: Ku Klux Klan." "The majority of people I've come across," Karen told LIFE, "you'd only know they were in the Klan if they decided to share that."

Photo: Blank/Time & Life Pictures

Apr 13, 2009


View This ImageView This ImageView This ImageView This ImageView This ImageView This ImageView This ImageYou Might Also Like


LIFE Goes Inside Today's KKK - Photo Gallery - LIFE

Apr 13, 2009 ... The unnerving photos featured here, exclusively on, are from his book,
"The Invisible Empire: Ku Klux Klan. ...



Ku Klux Klan




100 Years of Domestic Terrorism

100 Years of Domestic Terrorism


MALCOLM X: The Ku Klux Klan...

MALCOLM X: The Ku Klux Klan...


Steel Pulse "Ku Klux Klan"...

Steel Pulse "Ku Klux Klan"...


LINK:  Ku Klux Klan Facts, information, pictures | ...


The Rise and Fall of Jim Crow